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Currently, there are more than twenty thousand different varieties of such a fruit plant as an apple tree. Both time-tested, well-known varieties are good, as well as recently bred, but quite worthy of the attention of gardeners. It is, of course, impossible to describe all the best winter and winter varieties in one article. However, you can try to give an idea of the most suitable varieties of apple trees for growing in climatic conditions of central Russia.
For experienced gardeners, it is not difficult to choose apple varieties in such a way as to be able to enjoy the fruits throughout the year. Novice gardeners are often lost when choosing a variety of fruit plants. Complicating the situation is the fact that the range of planting material is very rich today.
To begin with, it is very important to clarify some basic concepts that will help determine the choice of seedlings and varieties:
- removable maturity - the stage of development of fruits, characterized by the full formation of fruits and involving the harvesting and harvesting of it for storage;
- consumer maturity - the stage at which the fruit acquires the typical coloration for a variety, taste and aroma;
- according to the ripening dates, as well as the keeping quality of the fruits, the varieties are divided into summer, autumn, winter and late winter;
- varieties can be early, medium or late, depending on the timing of the fruiting period.
The following are the most popular and demanded from the point of view of cultivation in central Russia winter varieties of apple trees.
An old variety loved by most gardeners. The fruits are well formed and ripen in central Russia and have a very beautiful yellowish-golden color, as well as a unique aroma that makes winter apples of this variety easily recognizable. White flesh staining. The taste is characterized by a slight acidity. Fruiting occurs after seven years of development. The plant compares favorably with frost resistance, unpretentiousness and low rates of disease damage.
The apples of this winter variety form fruits, the average mass of which is about 170 grams. The rounded, slightly conical shape with the absence of ribbing makes apples of this variety very attractive in appearance. At the stage of mass harvesting, the main staining of the fruits is greenish. Ripe fruits acquire a bright red blush that covers most of the fruit. Apples have a light gray and fairly dense pulp, which is characterized by a dessert, sour-sweet taste, and after some time of storage acquires tenderness and aroma. The apple trees of the Kuban-Spur variety have a small-sized crown, productivity and are perfectly adapted to cultivation in the middle lane of our country.
Apple trees of this popular winter variety have many advantages. Fruiting occurs in the fifth year of cultivation. The plant has an average of winter hardiness and resistance to disease.
Despite the fact that the plant is bred in the territory of America, in the middle zone of our country it is also very abundant in fruiting. Apples form medium and large and have a yellowish-green color. The presence of a dark red pleasant blush is characteristic. At the picking stage, fruits may have a “rusted” mesh. The strong and crisp fruit pulp is distinguished by a delicate creamy shade, juiciness and dessert taste.
Winter varieties of apple trees
Grade winter "Kandil Oryol"
The apple trees of the winter grade "Kandil Oryol" bear fruit well enough in the conditions of central Russia. The average weight of the fruit does not exceed 120 grams. The shape of the apples is oblong and slightly conical. Fruits are characterized by relative one-dimensionality and strong ribbing. As a rule, staining of the fetus is greenish-yellow with a blurred raspberry blush. The pulp has a subtle greenish tint, is juicier and has a fine-grained texture. The taste of fruits is sweet and sour. The tree is characterized by high productivity and early maturity, and also has immunity to scab damage.
Apple trees of the winter variety of domestic selection, widespread in central Russia. Rounded yellow-green fruits are formed with a reddish blush. Apples of this variety are dense and creamy pulp. The taste is excellent, the fruits have a touch of grape sweetness and an unusual spicy aroma. Ripening occurs in October, and the indices of keeping quality allow preserving the pristine qualities of fruits until April. Trees abundantly bear fruit from the fifth year of cultivation. Krone needs regular pruning. When freezing, apple trees of this variety are able to recover.
Winter apples of the Imrus variety form fairly flattened, medium-sized fruits with weak ribbing. The oily skin of apples is not rusted. Removable maturity is recognizable by the greenish tint of the fruit. At the stage of consumer maturity, fruits acquire a light yellow color. When removed, half of the fetus has strips of a blurred red blush, which then acquires a crimson color. The pulp of apples is creamy and dense. It is characterized by juiciness and sweet and sour taste, as well as a harmonious combination of sugars and acids.
Apple trees of this American winter variety take root well in central Russia. Fruits of medium size and rounded in shape with strong flattening. Yellowish-gold coloration with a cover red tint. The fruit pulp is white, with a slight acidity and a delicate, pleasant aroma. Plants begin to form plentiful crops after five years of cultivation. Winter hardiness is normal, and resistance to disease is quite high.
Apple trees relatively new winter varieties "Start" are quite popular. The average weight of the fruit does not exceed 140 grams. Fruits have an oblong shape, wide ribbing and some sloping. At the picking stage, the fruit stains are greenish. Subsequently, the main color is complemented by a yellow tint. On the fruits, the blurry brick-red hue of the strip is clearly distinguishable. The flesh is slightly greenish with a coarse-grained structure and increased juiciness. The taste is sweet and sour.
An interesting early winter variety in taste and appearance. Apples from fruit trees "Bashkir handsome" are medium in size, and the mass of each can vary from 90 to 140 grams. Fruits have the correct form, one-dimensionality and some conicity. At the phase of removable maturity, the main staining is greenish, in the future the main tone turns white and streaks of blush appear. Apples of this variety have a white, fine-grained, juicy pulp with a sweet and sour taste and pleasant aroma.
Renet Kursk Golden
Apple trees of this winter variety can become an ornament of garden plantings. Fruits are slightly flattened, light green in color with a yellowish tinge. During storage, apples acquire a golden color. The pulp is white, has a high taste. The fruits are stored almost until spring. The fruiting of the tree is plentiful and occurs in the sixth year of cultivation.
Apple trees of a popular annually fruiting winter variety with beautiful rounded fruits. The surface of the apples has a basic yellowish-green color and a bright red blush. The fruits have a white and delicate pulp, which differs in aroma and fine-grained structure. The fruit plant is susceptible to disease, but quickly enters the fruiting phase. Recently, the variety has become popular in many countries and is successfully cultivated by amateur gardeners of our country.
Features of planting and care
Planting seedlings of winter fruiting period can be carried out both in autumn and early spring. The sequence of work when planting fruit seedlings is as follows:
- Draw a circle around the landing peg.
- Dig a planting hole, laying fertile soil in one direction, and subsoil in the other.
- Install the peg.
- Pour in the hole refill mixture in the form of a knoll.
- Place the apple tree seedling on the knoll.
- Tie a sapling of a fruit tree placed in a landing hole to a peg.
- Pour a roller from fertile soil and perform abundant watering of the seedling.
It should be remembered that the depth and width of the planting hole completely depend on the type and size of the root system of the fruit tree seedling.
We also offer you to read an article that talks about the benefits and dangers of apples.
Harvesting and storage rules
Typically, refrigerators are used to store apples on an industrial scale. In private households, storage is carried out in basements or cellars, which should have temperature indicators and humidity parameters suitable for preserving the crop. It is recommended to store apples in layers, using wooden boxes or special boxes. In addition, it is very important to use disinfected containers, and disinfect the room with special smoke bombs. In this case, the crop will remain as long as possible, which will allow to receive a charge of vitamins until spring.