Grapes "Pinot Noir" from the French pinot noir, translates as "black bump". The variety belongs to the technical grapes used to produce high-quality and popular in many countries wines. The term is also used to refer to seperate wine.
The homeland of Pinot Noir grapes is considered to be the French region of Burgundy. Documentary references to the ancestors of this ancient and respected grape variety date back to the 4th century. The monastery documents contain information about "Pinot Noir" as the main grape variety for making wine, which are dated to the XIV century.
According to most opinions, the parents of the variety, in accordance with the results of the DNA analysis, are Traminer with the cloned form or seedling Pinot less. There are a lot of synonyms for this grape variety, but the most famous are:
- "Pinot fran" or Franc Pinot;
- "Pinot is black";
- "The head";
- "Blau Burgunder", or Blau Burgunder;
- "Petit Plan dore", or Petit Plant dore;
- "Pinot Negro";
- "Round the wound";
- Blauer Spetburgunder, or Blauer Spatburgunder;
- "Pinot black."
Morphological data and biological characteristics allow the variety to be attributed to the ecological-geographical group of West European grapes cultivated in countries such as France, Germany, Austria, Italy, Switzerland, Argentina, Japan and others, with mostly moderately cool climatic conditions. The vegetative active period lasts from 135 to 150 days.
Grapes "Pinot Noir" is a relatively early maturity variety, with mass harvesting of a fully ripened crop in late August or early September.
Grapes called "Pinot Noir" forms medium-sized bushes with characteristic leaves, which have a round, three- or five-lobed shape. On the underside there is a weak, cobweb-like, pubescence.
Ripe grape brushes are relatively small, with an average weight of 100-110 g. The cluster structure is very dense, resembling corn cobs. On fruitful shoots of the order of 1.6 clusters, and on their developing quantity it does not exceed 0.9.
Technical characteristics of berries
The berries of the Pinot Noir grape are of average size. The standard diameter of the berry can vary from 14 to 16 mm. The shape of the berry can be either round or slightly oval. Deformed berries are rarely formed. Coloring is dark blue, with the presence of a bluish overflow. The average weight of one berry is from 1.3 to 1.8 g.
The peel is strong enough, but thin, covers a juicy and pleasant, delicate pulp. The juice from the berries of this grape variety is colorless, with a harmonious taste. The average number of seeds in one berry can be 2-3 pcs.
Per 100 grams of products are:
- juice - a little over 75%;
- ridges - a little over 4%;
- peels, dense parts of pulp and seeds - almost 20%.
The average sugar content in the juice is a little more than 21 g / 100 ml. The average acidity does not exceed 7.8 g / l.
The Pinot Noir grape is not only one of the oldest grape varieties, but can also be considered the patriarch of the Pinot varietal family, which has the following advantages:
- in case of unforeseen death of the bulk of the eyes, there is a tendency to develop shoots from replacing buds, which allows you to restore fruiting in a short time;
- forms bushes not too high and convenient for carrying out leaving;
- quite fruitful by the standards of technical grape varieties;
- possesses quite worthy winter hardiness;
- allows you to get great wines.
This variety is often affected by fungal diseases and requires the use of the most complete range of basic protective measures. The variety is highly dependent on weather conditions and cultivation area.
"Pinot Noir": sepezhny wine (wine)
Grapes "Pinot Noir" is the basis for very noble wines that have a very delicate and complex aroma. The variety is difficult to blend. Red wines made from Pinot Noir are among the best along with Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon.
The most popular and widely known wines based on Pinot Noir grapes are presented in the table.
|Pinot Noir 2013||Saint Clair Estate Wines 2013||wine from New Zealand. South about Marlborough||Dry red wine with a strength of 13.5%.|
|Pinot Noir 2011||Huia Estate 2011||wine from New Zealand||Dry red wine with a strength of 14%.|
|Pinot Noir 2011||Paul Hobbs 2011||USA. California. Sonoma County River River Valley||Dry red wine with a strength of 14.5%.|
|Pinot Noir 2012 Gran Reserva||Vina Chocalan 2012||Chile. Central Valley. Maipo Valley||Dry red wine with a strength of 14%.|
|Pinot Noir 2011||Dog Point 2011||wine from New Zealand. South about Marlborough||Dry red wine with a strength of 13.5%.|
|Pinot Noir 2010||Felton Road 2010||wine from New Zealand. South about Otago "Central-Otago"||Dry red wine with a strength of 14%.|
|Pinot Noir 2012||Saint Clair Estate Wines 2012||wine from New Zealand. South about Marlborough||Dry red wine with a strength of 13.5%.|
|Pinot Noir 2010||MT Difficulty 2010||wine from New Zealand. South about Otago "Central-Otago"||Dry red wine with a strength of 14%.|
|Pinot Noir 2014 DOCK||Peter Zemmer 2014||Italy Alto - Adige DOC||Dry red wine|
|Pinot Noir 2009||Belle Glos Vineyards 2009||USA California. Napa Valley||Dry red wine with a strength of 13%.|
|Pinot Noir 2012 Reserve||Villa Maria 2012||wine from New Zealand. South about Marlborough||Dry red wine with a strength of 14%.|
|Pinot Noir 2011||Greywacke 2011||wine from New Zealand. South about Marlborough||Dry red wine with a strength of 14%.|
Wines from this grape variety have aromas of strawberries, cherries, as well as ripe cherries. A more complex wine acquires the background sous-bois. The most “solid” samples, especially those made from grapes from warm regions, are characterized by the appearance of a fragrant profile resembling a shiraz, which has shades of skin and violets.
The Pinot Noir grapes are very unpretentious and cultivated well even under not very favorable conditions. When planting, be sure to consider the characteristics of this variety and adhere to the following recommendations:
- planting grape bushes with a row distance of about 80 cm and a row spacing of 1 meter;
- standard trellis height can vary from 1.2 to 1.5 meters;
- an area of 1 ha is suitable for growing 11 thousand grape bushes, which indicates the compactness of this variety;
- planting in the spring is from mid-March to mid-May, and with autumn planting, you should adhere to the dates from the last ten days of September to the beginning of November;
- unfavorable are growing conditions on the plain and low reliefs;
- the best option for cultivating vineyards of this variety is to use areas on gentle slopes with moderate to dry and calcareous soils.
After planting seedlings, vine bushes should be abundantly watered and adhere to such an irrigation regime during the first week.
Vineyards of this variety are very responsive to watering and top dressing, as well as competent care:
- It is recommended to make high-quality pruning for 7 eyes;
- watering should not be too frequent, but plentiful enough;
- top dressing should be made at the stage of active vegetation. In the spring, the introduction of nitrogen is necessary, which has a beneficial effect on the growth and full development of the bushes;
- the variety should be cultivated on low bushes with a small supply of perennial wood in the southern regions;
- for the Northern regions, it is preferable to use powerful formations on high boles with relatively long sleeves and fruit shoots;
- insufficient winter hardiness requires shelter for the winter period in the Northern regions.
It should be remembered that the variety is moderately resistant to mildew and oidium, as well as slightly affected by gray rot and damaged by a leaf grater, which requires mandatory preventive spraying of the bushes.
You may also be interested in an article in which we talk about the technology of making homemade wine from grapes.
Grapes "Pinot Noir" are most often cultivated by winegrowers using conventional agricultural cultivation techniques that are common for most winter grazing shelters. The variety is distinguished by the ability to produce fruitful shoots from replacing buds. and is characterized by very early budding of the kidneys, as a result of which it is often damaged by late spring frosts.
Despite the fact that, on an industrial scale, this variety is grown as a non-covering crop, in the Krasnodar Territory, on a significant territory of other regions of our country, Pinot Noir grapes are not zoned. Here he is assessed as unpromising and requiring high costs for shelter. In addition, mass use is inhibited by low productivity. The variety has a tendency to set a stepson crop.
Experienced growers weekly throughout the summer period spray the bushes with small doses of zircon and gummat, and in the spring, the use of epin gives a good result.
How to form a bush of grapes (video)
A high level of agricultural technology using underground irrigation, continuous spraying with stimulants and micronutrient fertilizers in addition to fan-shaped formation allows the bushes to bear fruit abundantly for a long time.