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Sometimes summer residents who have plots in the Moscow region do not plant grapes. This is explained by the harsh climatic conditions for a heat-loving plant and the difficulties of sheltering. But in reality, not everything is so complicated. Growing grapes in the Moscow region is quite realistic and affordable. Let's dwell on the important points.
A very significant stage. The gardener is faced with the following tasks:
- Choose the grape variety wisely. Each culture has species that are ideal for a particular region. So, for the Moscow region, you need to pick up grape varieties that can calmly withstand a drop in temperature. For example, "Laura", "Delight", "Kuban" or "Kodryanka" are considered cold-resistant.
- Choose the right place for the vineyard and plant it. The plant does not like areas that are heavily blown by the wind. A quiet place and strong shelter is not needed.
- Maintain the depth of planting grapes in the suburbs. The landing should be deep enough. Of course, it is unrealistic to bury the seedling below the level of soil freezing, but it is better to stop at the maximum allowable mark.
- Do not forget to feed the grapes with potash fertilizers in the fall. In addition to nutrition, they also perform a warming function.
- Take care of the option of sheltering the vine in advance. Winters in the Moscow region are snowy, which will greatly facilitate the gardener's autumn work on warming the vine. And the snow cover will save the grapes from freezing. But you need to think about materials and construction even before planting grapes on the site.
If each point is carried out responsibly, then already planted grapes in the Moscow region can be covered in various ways. In order for the shelter to fully fulfill its protective function, the plants are pre-prepared.
Preparing plants before shelter
You need to start preparing the vine for wintering at a certain time. Shelter too early is as harmful as too late. If the vine is covered ahead of schedule, then it:
- will not have time to stock up on enough nutrients for wintering;
- can get a fungal infection or stubbornly due to the excessively warm temperature under the shelter.
Late protection of grapes is not able to prevent the freezing of the vine, especially when young. Young shoots are covered as soon as the night temperature drops to -2 ° C. It is with such a slight frost that the growth of shoots stops. But young grapes can be opened only with positive indicators. Older vines are more frost-resistant, but you shouldn't risk it here either.
What is the preparation of the plant before the shelter? After the leaves fall, the grapes are removed from the support and the vine is bent to the ground. To fix the shoots, metal staples are used. Proper planting of grapes will be of great help. If the angle of inclination of the vine is maintained when planting, then bending will not be able to injure the plant.
Be sure to do proper pruning before bending down the vine.
At the same time, certain shoots are chosen for wintering, they are treated with iron vitriol, the rest are cut off.
Important! After bending down, the vine should not have points of contact with the ground.
Such contact due to moisture will lead to mold growth. To avoid this, it is recommended to put wooden planks under the vine.
Do not use plastic wrap or fallen leaves. These materials will not save you from dampness, but, on the contrary, will collect condensation.
Types of covering material for vines
How to cover grapes for the winter in the suburbs? The technique depends on the choice of covering material. And the main ways of sheltering grapes are divided into three types:
- Hilling. It is carried out for young seedlings using a mound up to 25 cm high.
- Semi-shelter. Only the part of the grapes that is above the ground is covered. Agrofibre or straw are considered optimal materials.
- Shelter is complete. It is with this method that shoots are removed from the supports, cut off, processed, bent to the ground and covered.
The third method is considered the most reliable for the Moscow region climate. What materials are used for this?
Natural - soil and snow. If you plan to cover the vine with earth, then you need to dig a groove, insulate it with spruce branches and lay the vine.
Then sprinkle gently with earth. The layer of the embankment depends on the type and relief of the site. As the plants mature, they will need more reliable protection. It is easier to cover with snow, but for this you need to be sure that the thickness of the snow cover will provide protection to the grapes throughout the winter. Otherwise, summer residents have to put up shields for snow retention or manually add snow.
What other material is used to cover grapes in the Moscow region? There are several possible options, you just have to choose the most acceptable one:
- Wooden boards. They are installed on both sides of the shoots, laid on supports. It turns out a house of small height, which many gardeners additionally upholstery from the inside with roofing material.
Suitable for small vineyards. With mass plantings, this method requires a large consumption of wood.
- Agrofibre or film. With this method, spruce branches are also placed on top of the vine to improve thermal insulation. If you take a film, then it will have to be removed at a positive temperature. Therefore, choose which material is more convenient for you to work with.
- Improvised home remedies. They are not used as an independent shelter, only in combination with the ground. It can be used slate sheets, plastic containers or the remnants of building supplies, burlap. Here you will have to monitor the weight of the superimposed shelter, so as not to overload or damage the vine.
Do not take cover next to a bush. This leads to the exposure of the roots, their freezing and death of the plant. It is optimal to retreat from the head of the bush by half a meter.
Use a three-layer shelter in the suburbs. For the first layer, take garden soil (from 5 to 15 cm), for the second - organic matter of the same thickness, for the third - loose soil 25 cm thick.
Provide additional protection to the roots, especially in winters with little snow.
Be sure to dig the soil twice a year - in spring and autumn. So, you will ensure good moisture absorption and reduce the risk of freezing grapes.
In a snowy winter, do not rush to make a powerful shelter. Snow will perfectly protect plants, just take it from the paths and place it on the bushes.