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It is necessary to plant currants in spring according to special rules. The shrub makes its own requirements for the time, place and planting algorithm, only if they are observed, it will grow beautiful and give a bountiful harvest.
Features of planting black currant in spring
Black currant is a very popular shrub in summer cottages. The plant adorns the garden and bears tasty fruits, however, it has some features that must be considered when planting.
- The culture loves moisture, but at the same time does not tolerate boggy. It should be planted in an area where the soil is always slightly moistened, but there is also good drainage.
- The shrub is a very early plant, it produces buds and is one of the first to bloom. Accordingly, it should be planted early, ideally immediately after warming up the soil.
- The culture does not tolerate calcareous and sandy soils. It is not recommended to plant it in dry soil in the spring, even if it can develop, it will have to provide very careful care.
- Blackcurrant bushes need regular feeding for good flowering and high-quality fruiting. Although the plant is considered quite hardy, it will not be able to bring large yields on depleted soils. In addition, regular feeding serves as an additional protection against diseases and pests - strong, healthy and developed currants are more resistant to fungi and insects and are less likely to get sick.
When planting currants in spring in open ground in groups, it must be borne in mind that the shrub grows widely, and, accordingly, when planting, each seedling must be provided with enough living space.
When can you plant currants in spring
In spring, black currants prefer early planting. It is necessary to wait until the soil warms up about 40 cm deep, and day and night temperatures will stably remain positive - not lower than 5-10 ° С. Usually the weather is right in early or mid April.
Advice! If the heat came early, but the likelihood of late return frosts remains, it is still possible to plant black currants in the spring, for the time of cold weather it is simply covered with insulating material.
How to plant currants in spring
For the correct planting of black currant in the spring, you need to understand which areas it prefers, and know the planting algorithm. It is necessary to take into account the requirements of the shrub to the soil and know what can and cannot be planted nearby.
Where to plant black currants
Planting currants in the shade or in the sun is a controversial issue among gardeners. But the optimal place for a plant is a well-lit, windless area. It is best to choose places where the culture can receive sunlight in the afternoon, but at the same time it will be slightly shaded by buildings or other trees and shrubs.
The crop prefers a moderately moist soil with a good drainage system. The shrub should not be planted in sandy areas in spring, however, heavy clay soils will not work for it. The optimal soil for the plant is nutritious loams.
Groundwater near the bushes should lie no higher than 1 m below the ground surface. If they pass closer, then the soil in the area with a fruit crop will be swampy, and it is unlikely that it will be possible to dry it artificially.
How to prepare the ground for currants
Before planting black currants in open ground, the site must be carefully prepared.
- First of all, you need to clear the soil from any weeds - foreign vegetation in the area with currant bushes will take away strength from the shrub and prevent its growth.
- Before planting a crop, the soil must be dug up - remove the top 50 cm of the earth, fill the soil with complex mineral fertilizers and organic matter, and then return the removed soil to its place. It is recommended to do this in advance, even in the fall, before planting the crop in the spring.
Important! The culture prefers low acid and neutral soils. If the soil on the site is acidic, then it is better to replace its top layer with soil with a pH of about 8 units.
Distance between currant bushes when planting
Since black currant grows rapidly in diameter and grows branched roots, when planting seedlings in groups, recommendations regarding the distance must be followed. There are several options for planting currants in the spring.
- If planting black currants is supposed to be single bushes in a row or in a checkerboard pattern, then the distance between the currants when planting should be about 2 m.
- If you need to plant several bushes at once, then 1 m of free space is left between individual seedlings, and when planting currants in rows between them, an indent of 2 m is made.
- If you need to breed a whole currant garden on the site or form a decorative group, the distance between the shrubs can be left no more than half a meter.
In the latter case, the bushes will not grow so tall and spreading. However, this disadvantage will be counterbalanced by high yields on a small area.
How to plant black currants in the spring
The algorithm for planting black currants in a bush in spring looks quite simple.
- First of all, in the selected area, you need to dig planting holes, their depth should be about 40 cm and a width of about 50 cm.Traditionally, only one seedling is lowered into each hole, so the number of holes should correspond to the number of shrubs.
- If the soil has not been fertilized yet in the fall, then you will need to add top dressing to it a couple of weeks before the direct planting of the shrub, 100 g of superphosphate in granules, 60 g of potassium and about 8 kg of manure per square meter are added to the soil. After laying the fertilizers, the hole must be watered abundantly so that the fertilizing can be absorbed into the soil faster.
- During planting in spring, black currants should be placed in a prepared hole at a slight angle and sprinkled with soil on its roots. You need to plant a bush with a root collar deepening by about 6 cm.
- The hole covered with soil is slightly crushed, and then about 5 liters of water is poured into the near-stem circle of the seedling.
After watering, the land next to the bushes can be mulched in spring. A dense layer of mulch will not only prevent the soil from drying out, but will also insulate the root system in the event of recurrent frosts.
Important! Planting currants with a closed root system is carried out in the same way, but before the procedure, the seedling must be removed from the pot along with an earthen lump. At the same time, you do not need to clean off the old soil, it is better to leave a lump in place and not injure the roots of the plant.
What to plant between currants
Since the recommendations for planting currants in the spring are advised to leave gaps between the bushes, subsequently the gardener faces the question of how to fill the remaining space. Strawberries and strawberries grow best next to fruit crops. They have similar soil and moisture requirements, and the root system of low berry bushes does not interfere with the growth of currant bushes.
Onions and garlic can also be planted close to the crop in spring. Edible plants not only feel good next to fruit bushes, but also bring practical benefits. Their pungent odor repels some pests, for example, bud mites, which can greatly reduce yields.
What can be planted next to black currants
Certain recommendations must be followed when planting other shrubs next to black currants. She hardly tolerates some neighbors, but with others it grows very well side by side.
Two crops will become favorable neighbors for black currant.
The apple tree successfully adjoins the black currant, the tree can be safely planted next to the fruit bushes. Plants are neutral to each other and thrive in close proximity.
Is it possible to plant currants and gooseberries next to each other
At first glance, gooseberries seem to be a very good neighbor for currant bushes, even the berries are slightly similar to each other, with the exception of size. However, in fact, it is strongly discouraged to plant gooseberries next to the crop in spring.
The fact is that shrubs often suffer from the same pests, for example, gooseberry moth. Accordingly, with close planting, the risk of infection of both plants increases significantly.
Is it possible to plant currants next to cherries
Juicy cherries are another unwanted neighbor for black currants. First of all, cherry trees and currant bushes have different requirements for the soil, so they cannot develop normally in one area. If you plant plants in the immediate vicinity, then either one of them, or both, will begin to bear fruit worse and stop developing.
Is it possible to plant currants next to raspberries
Raspberries are among the plants that prefer to grow alone, so planting a shrub next to black currants is definitely not worth it. Raspberries grow very strongly on the site and have a depressing effect on neighboring crops - depriving them of space and sunlight. In addition, raspberries need a lot of water, it will take away moisture from currant plantings, which will negatively affect the growth of the latter.
When buds on currants wake up
Black currant is one of the first crops to start growing in spring. As a rule, the buds on the shoots of the plant appear in early or mid-April, depending on the timing of the establishment of warm weather. In the southern regions, culture awakens even earlier - in March.
Attention! Because of the early swelling of the buds, currant plantings are cut very early in the spring, back in March or early April.
How currants bloom
The flowering time depends on the region in which the black currant grows. In the middle lane, the plant produces flowers usually in mid-May, with an average daily temperature of about 15 ° C. In the northwestern and northeastern regions, flowering may be slightly delayed, until the end of May. In the south, the shrub can give flowers in spring in early and mid-April, as soon as the temperature during the day rises above 10 ° C on average.
Flowering continues for a rather long time - from 10 to 23 days, and with a slight cold snap, the shrub blooms longer. The flowers themselves in the plant are rather modest - small in size, white-yellow or white, dim.
When currants begin to bear fruit after planting
The first harvests from black currant after planting in spring do not have to wait long. Subject to proper agricultural technology and careful care, the culture bears fruit the next year after planting.
The black currant reaches its highest flowering after a few years. The most abundant harvests can be harvested from it, starting from the 4th year of life.
How much black currant grows
The average life span of a culture is about 15 years, and the plant bears fruit as much. Including therefore, you need to carefully choose a site before planting currants in the spring, in one place the bush will remain for quite a long time.
What kind of frost can currant withstand?
Currant bushes are considered frost-resistant - it is not for nothing that fruit crops are successfully grown even in Siberia. In winter, plantings are able to calmly tolerate temperatures up to - 35–40 ° C in the presence of shelter. And in the southern regions and the middle lane, the plant may not be covered at all, if frosts are expected not lower than -15 ° C.
As for return frosts, the culture buds survive in spring at temperatures down to -5 ° C. Blooming flowers will endure a cold snap to -3 ° C, and the ovary will remain on the branches at a temperature of -2 ° C.
Mistakes when growing currants
Some gardeners complain that the weather-resistant and unpretentious garden crop refuses to bear fruit or gives too low yields. Usually problems are related to breaking the basic rules of how to plant in spring and grow shrubs.
Several common mistakes can be listed.
- Insufficient watering. You can often hear the opinion that the shrub is able to get by with the natural amount of moisture, but this is not true. With a lack of water, the culture slows down, the yield drops, and the berries become smaller and less tasty. Ideally, the bushes should be watered at least three times per season, at the end of May during active fasting, during ripening and immediately after harvest.
- Lack of fertilizers. Even if the soil is thoroughly fertilized before planting the shrub, nutrients will disappear from the soil over time. To maintain the health of the plant, it is necessary to apply fertilizing annually, nitrogenous at the end of spring, potassium and phosphate after harvest, and organic in the fall, before the onset of cold weather.
- No clipping. Black currant grows and thickens rather quickly. As a result, young shoots receive less moisture, sunlight and nutrients, so the yield is noticeably reduced. In order for the plant to bear fruit well, it must be pruned annually - old thick shoots are regularly removed from the shrub, thereby ensuring continuous rejuvenation of the fruit crop.
The lack of preventive treatment against pests and fungi becomes disastrous for the productivity of the shrub. Powdery mildew, rust, white spot, as well as moth, aphid and kidney mite pose a particular threat to the plant. During each season, the shrub must be regularly inspected for lesions and not planted next to crops suffering from the same pests.
Since it is rather difficult to cure pests and fungus on black currants, it is better to carry out prophylaxis in the spring - treat the bushes with insecticides and fungicides, regardless of the presence of pests on the leaves and shoots of the plant.
Tips from seasoned gardeners about planting currants in spring
In addition to following the standard rules for planting and growing, you can use special tricks. According to the reviews of experienced gardeners, if you plant black currants in spring according to these tips, then the yield of the plant can be raised.
- Immediately after planting the seedling in the spring, it is recommended to slightly prune it. All shoots are shortened so that no more than 4 buds remain on the branches. After such pruning, black currant begins to actively develop the root system, which means that it quickly hardens in the soil and begins to bear fruit well the next year.
- Not all blackcurrant varieties are self-fertile, some require pollination with other varieties. And even self-fertile varieties produce more bountiful yields when pollinated. Therefore, ideally, several plant varieties should be planted nearby in the spring for high-quality pollination, then there will be more fruits on the bush.
Despite the fact that traditional agricultural technology recommends planting 1 bush in 1 hole, many summer residents violate this rule. According to the observations of experienced gardeners, black currant bushes grow more powerful and capable of abundant fruiting, if 3 seedlings are planted in a single hole at once. Sometimes the harvest after that grows 2-3 times in comparison with the bushes planted using conventional technology.
It is necessary to plant currants in the spring according to the established rules, at the right time and in good soil. If initially comfortable conditions are created for the plant, then it will grow better, and the harvests from black currants will be more abundant.