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Kochedzhnik fern is a garden, undemanding crop, intended for cultivation on a personal plot. There are many varieties that have their positive and negative sides. The plant is unpretentious, quickly grows green mass when grown in the shade of trees, next to buildings and on the northern side of the site.
General description of the species
Fern Kochedzhnik is a perennial, ancient plant from the Aspleniev family. It is unpretentious, grows well and develops in a shady and humid area. Kochedzhnik fern is a well-known crop, gardeners love it for its beautiful foliage, ease of cultivation and versatility in use. Before purchasing a kochedzhnik fern, you need to familiarize yourself with the characteristics, view the photo and choose the variety you like.
- The cochid fern has a branched root system, which is located superficially. Straight or spreading, small roots are black.
- The stem is low, compacted, densely leafy.
- Lanceolate leaves have a pinnate, triangular structure. The leaf plate is attached to the shoot with a small petiole covered with a thin shell. The leaf plate is large, reaching a length of up to half a meter. On the outer side of the leaf, sori are formed in autumn, in which spores ripen, thanks to which the plant reproduces.
- The leaves appear in the spring and are the decoration of the plant. Depending on the variety, they have a varied color: dark emerald, variegated, red, gray and ashy.
- The head fern is easy to grow, as it develops well in gas-polluted areas, is resistant to low temperatures and grows well in moist soil.
- Kochedzhnik is considered a long-liver; in one place it can grow for about 15 years.
Varieties of kochedyzhnik
In natural conditions, there are about 200 varieties of the head fern. But on the territory of Russia, about 10-15 varieties are grown. The most popular are:
- The female is one of the most famous species that can be found in household plots. The plant got its name for the delightful, lacy foliage. Under natural conditions, the female fern grows in North America and central Europe. The female fern grows up to 120 cm in height. Leaves, growing in early spring, reach 100 cm, have oval, pinnately dissected, light olive foliage, collected in a dense bunch. The dense and powerful root system has medicinal properties, which is why they are often used in traditional medicine. Thanks to the beautiful foliage, the female kochedzhnik is used for landscaping summer cottages and city parks.
- Nippon is a popular variety that is popularly grown in China, Japan, Vietnam and Korea. Nipponsky kochedzhnik is considered the most beautiful species, thanks to the bright and beautiful foliage. The leaf plate of the fern is colored in a silvery-ash color with reddish-purple stains. The culture prefers partial shade and moderately moist soil. Due to its high frost resistance, the Nipponsky fern can be grown throughout Russia.
- Gorodchaty is a perennial culture, up to half a meter high. It prefers to grow near water bodies, in moist, swampy forests. The fern forms a long, cord-like, branched rhizome on which leaves grow in a single or group arrangement. The leaf plate is oblong, pinnately dissected, light emerald in color. The variety reproduces by spores and dividing the bush. When growing on a personal plot, it is necessary to pick up a wetland in partial shade.
- Crenate-serrate, common in the Far East and Primorye. It can be found along the banks of rivers, lakes and in humid forests. The plant is medium-sized, reaches a height of 1 m. The light olive leaf plate reaches 70 cm, has a beautiful, openwork appearance. The variety is frost-resistant, grows well and develops in the shade under the crowns of trees. When growing a fern in the sun, growth slows down, and the leaf plate loses its decorative effect.
- Needle - a low-growing variety, the height reaches up to half a meter. When growing on a personal plot, it must be remembered that the plant grows rapidly, forming extensive thickets. An openwork leaf plate of a diamond-shaped, pinnately-divided shape, located vertically and painted in olive color.
- Chinese or red-petiolate is a tall plant, reaching up to 120 cm. Forms beautiful, dense thickets due to self-seeding. The leaves, collected in a bunch, have a crimson tint. The leaf plate is attached to the shoot with dark red small cuttings. The variety is winter-hardy, grows well in moist soil. Chinese fern is suitable for creating decorative compositions in the shade of trees and looks beautiful when decorating flower beds.
Fern varieties Nipponsky kochedyzhnik
Gardeners use the Nipponsky kochedzhnik to decorate their summer cottage. The species gained popularity for its beautiful, highly decorative foliage with a metallic sheen and bright crimson tones on the stem. The most famous varieties:
- Pictum is an ornamental variety with vibrant and efficient foliage. The leaf plate has a gray-emerald hue with pink or ash veins. The plant shows its decorative effect in clear, sunny weather, when grown in light partial shade. The soil should be loose, fertile, well moistened with high acidity. The variety is universal; it is planted in flower beds, next to cereals and ornamental shrubs.
- Ursulas Red is an ornamental variety of kochedzhnik, which will become an adornment of the personal plot. The Ursulas Red head fern in the spring releases young shoots, painted in a light olive color with a red tint near the center and yellow-silver edges. As it grows, the leaf plate acquires a snow-white-silver color, and the center turns red-green-purple. Thanks to its fantastic colors and decorative appearance, which lasts from spring to the first frost, Ursulas Red is widely used in landscape design.
- Burgundy Leys is a large and decorative variety that bewitches with its unusual foliage. In spring, the plant produces burgundy-red foliage, over time it brightens and acquires a silvery color, at the end of the growing season the leaf plate acquires a greenish tint, leaving the central vein of a bright red color. The Nippon fern of Burgundy Leys is a long-liver, in one place it can grow up to 15 years. The plant is unpretentious, it can be planted in the shade, but in the partial shade of the sun the fern acquires a rich bright foliage color.
- Fern Cochinacea Red Beauty is a low species, its height reaches up to half a meter. Red Beauty is famous for its decorative foliage color. In the first half of the growing season, it is painted in pink-purple color, as it grows, the color changes to purple-ash, closer to autumn, the leaf acquires a silvery color with a pronounced purple stem. Fern Nipponsky Red Beauty is frost-hardy and unpretentious. It can grow both in the sun and in the shade. But when grown in a well-lit place, the foliage acquires a bright, rich color, which adorns the personal plot from spring to the first frost.
Varieties of female kochedyzhnik
The female kochedzhnik is a medium-sized, unpretentious culture that reaches a height of 1 m. In spring, emerald shoots of an original form grow from a powerful, short rhizome. As they unfold, they turn into large, delicate, pinnately complex leaves. The variety is very popular with flower growers. It is used for single and group plantings, for decorating flower beds and next to ornamental shrubs.
The most popular varieties:
- Lady-in-Red is the tallest representative of the class, the plant height reaches 120 cm. Delicate green leaves are collected in a bunch, have a double and triple feathery shape with dissected feathers. This gives the foliage an openwork, airy look. This species belongs to the forest, therefore it grows and develops well on fertile, light, moist soil.
- Victoria is a low view that is suitable for decorating small personal plots. Large, delicate olive leaves, pinnately divided in shape, are attached to the stem with small lemon or reddish petioles. The foliage is directed in different directions, due to this, regular chains are formed on both sides of the leaf axis. Victoria is unpretentious, grows well in the shade on moist soil.
The red-stalked or Chinese kochadzhnik is widespread in the broad-leaved forests of the Far East. The plant forms a low bush, which reaches 70-100 cm. Double and triple feathery soft green leaves are attached to the stem with red petioles. The leaves grow from a thick, creeping rhizome, forming an openwork bundle.
The Chinese cochiner is undemanding to the soil, grows well on forest and garden soil. The variety does not tolerate waterlogging and drought well, it is resistant to frost, shading does not interfere with growth and development. The plant is long-lived, in one place it can grow up to 15 years.
Application in landscape design
Kochedzhnik is widely used in landscape design, as the openwork foliage gives chic and splendor to the personal plot. They are planted in shady places, next to a reservoir, under the crowns of tall ornamental shrubs. Kochedzhnik looks harmoniously when planted in flower beds, among other types of fern, which will contrast in color and size.
Kochedzhnik fern is a godsend for flower growers, as it is unpretentious, suitable for growing in small areas. Thanks to its bright, delicate foliage, the fern looks great among bright perennials, near ornamental shrubs, in single and group plantings.