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Making frames for beehives

Making frames for beehives


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Hive frames are available in different sizes, depending on the design and dimensions of the house. The apiary inventory consists of four slats, knocked down into a rectangle. A wire is stretched between the opposite slats for fastening the foundation.

What are the frames for hives

Frames for bees differ not only in size, but also in purpose. Inventory is used to perform various tasks.

Varieties of bee frames

At the place of installation, there are two main types:

  1. Nest models are installed at the bottom of the hive. The inventory is used for arranging the brood zone. The design of the nesting and honey frames in the sunbeds is the same.
  2. Shop half-frames are used during honey collection. The inventory is set up in the upper hives superimposed on the hives. If the design of the lounger provides for extensions, then you can use half-frames here as well.

By design, there are the following types of beekeeping equipment:

  • Covering honeycomb frames can be of different sizes. They do not differ in a special design. Honeycomb frames enclose the nest on both sides to keep warm. This is where the name came from.
  • The frame feeder has the same dimensions of the honeycomb frame and is installed in its place. The inventory is used to feed the bees with syrup.
  • The incubator consists of a honeycomb frame with brood or a sealed queen cell enclosed in a box. The inventory is used during the growing of mother liquors.
  • The nursery is also called the grafting frame. The inventory consists of a simple honeycomb frame. The sides are equipped with sliding bars. The nursery is in demand during the installation of cages with a queen.
  • The splash frame is often referred to as a blackboard. It is assembled from a frame sheathed with thin strips. Install the outpost board in the hive to keep warm. Beekeepers also make inventory from polystyrene or sheathe the frame with plywood on both sides, and fill the inner space with thermal insulation.
  • Construction honeycomb frames are used in the production of honeycomb and wax. The equipment helps fight drones and ticks. In the spring, drones are taken out on construction honeycomb frames to mate with the uterus.
  • Sectional models are used for the production of honeycomb. The inventory appeared in the 90s of the last century. The sections are made of plastic. Frames for honeycomb are inserted into a semi-frame measuring 435-145 mm.

Common to all varieties of beekeeping equipment is a standard size corresponding to the dimensions of the hive used.

More information about the apiary equipment can be found in the video:

What limits are non-flying bees on?

Non-flying bees are young animals aged from 14 to 20 days. Insects work inside the hive and occasionally fly out only to empty the intestines. When old bees are engaged in honey collection, non-flying young animals remain on honeycomb frames with brood.

How to determine the size of frames

The honeycomb frames are installed inside the hive, from here their size is determined. There are standards for all types of houses.

Basic frame standards

If we talk about standards, then the dimensions of the frames for bee hives are as follows:

  • 435x300 mm are used in the Dadan hives;
  • 435x230 mm are used in Ruta hives.

With a slight difference in height, the standard models are suitable for two-tiered and multi-tiered hives.

However, Dadan's hives are used with store extensions. The sizes of the frames are suitable as follows:

  • 435x300 mm are placed in the nests;
  • 435x145 mm are placed in honey extensions.

The top rail of any model is slightly lengthened. On both sides, 10 mm projections are formed for hanging in the hive. The width of the slats corresponding to the thickness of the frame is 25 mm.

Less common are hives that require the use of honeycomb frames of other standards:

  • put in the hive a 300x435 mm frame of the Ukrainian model, which is distinguished by a narrow body and increased height;
  • 435x145 mm are placed in low but wide hives.

In the Boa hives, non-standard sizes of honeycomb frames 280x110 mm are used.

What factors influence the choice

The choice of frame size depends on the type of hive used. In turn, the choice of design depends on the purpose of the inventory.

Important! Beehive manufacturers are trying to produce universal products to simplify the work of beekeepers.

Distance between frames in the hive

Bees cover gaps less than 5 mm wide with propolis, and spaces more than 9.5 mm wide are built up with honeycombs. However, in the hive between the combs and the wall, a so-called bee space is formed. Bees do not build it up with honeycombs and propolis.

The bee colony leaves up to 12 mm of space between the foundation with brood, and up to 9 mm between honeycombs. Considering the bee space, beekeepers observe the following gaps when installing the frames:

  • between the sidewall of the frame and the wall of the hive - up to 8 mm;
  • between the top rail of the frame and the ceiling or the lower element of the cell frame of the superior body - up to 10 mm;
  • between honeycomb frames in the nest - up to 12 mm, and in the absence of spacers, the gap in the spring is reduced to 9 mm.

Compliance with the gaps creates optimal conditions for the development of the bee colony in the hive.

General principles of making frames for bees

The process of assembling frames for hives follows the same principle. The honeycomb equipment consists of 4 slats, knocked down into a rectangle of a standard size. The length of the top plank is always greater than the lower plank. The protrusions form shoulders for installing the structure in the hive. The frame inside the house is supported by projections on the side walls.

Wood is a common material. Modern equipment began to be produced from plastic. However, many beekeepers prefer natural material.

Drawings and dimensions of frames for beehives

Initially, before manufacturing, the beekeeper needs to decide on the size. When assembling a store and nesting frame for a hive with your own hands, you do not need to look for different drawings. One circuit is enough, since the designs are identical. Only the dimensions differ in the drawing.

Tools and materials

From materials you will need dry slats, nails, self-tapping screws, wire for stringing the strings. It is ideal to have a woodworking machine from a tool. The planks can be cut and sanded by hand, but it will take longer and more difficult.

Advice! If you intend to assemble a large number of frames for hives with your own hands, it is optimal to have a special template at hand from the tool - a conductor.

How to make a frame for a beehive with your own hands

Modern innovative frames are made of plastic, but not many beekeepers like artificial material. Beekeepers traditionally prefer wood. The process of making inventory consists of two main steps: preparing the slats and assembling the structure.

The strips are cut to the required dimensions according to the drawing, sanded on a machine or manually with sandpaper. The assembly is carried out with self-tapping screws for the strength of the connection. You can use carnations, but then the joints must be additionally glued with PVA, otherwise the design will turn out to be weak.

If you make frames for bees with your own hands from coniferous wood, it is advisable to treat them with linseed oil or molten paraffin. The coating will protect the honeycomb from resin escaping from the wood. When the frame is assembled, the wire is pulled.

The video tells more about the manufacture of inventory:

The location of the wire on the frame

The wire is pulled over the frame in rows. There are two schemes for stretching it: longitudinal and transverse.

How to choose wire for frames

The wire is pulled like a string. This state can only be achieved with high-quality material. Special beekeeping wire made of carbon steel, sold in coils.

Stores may offer ferrous wire and stainless steel. The first option is cheaper, but corrosive. The ideal is stainless steel. Some beekeepers use tungsten wire for stretching. The result is good because tungsten is corrosion resistant. Non-ferrous wires or string will not work. They are soft and tend to stretch, which will cause the strings to sag.

Which winding is better: longitudinal or transverse

It is impossible to choose the ideal winding scheme, since each has its own pros and cons. When the strings are stretched laterally, the number of rows increases. The tensile force on the slats is distributed more evenly, due to which they bend less. During longitudinal stretching, 2 to 4 rows are pulled onto the frame, depending on its size. The tensile force is distributed over a smaller area of ​​the planks, and they bend more.

However, it is more difficult to build up foundation with a transverse stretch. Due to the smaller number of rows of strings in the longitudinal pattern, the honeycomb soldering process is simplified.

To select the optimal winding scheme, the strength of the strips and the size of the frame are taken into account. The last parameter is important. The number of stretches increases on a large frame.

When choosing one of the schemes, one must take into account that during operation, even the tightest string weakens. It is advisable not to wind the ends of the string on a taut track. They are tied to studs hammered into opposite planks. The caps protrude about 5 mm above the rail surface. The total length of the nail is 15 mm. It is advisable to take 1.5 mm in thickness. A thick nail will split the bar.

During winding, the ends of the stretched wire are wound around nails. When the strings sag during operation, the tension is carried out by driving in a nail. Sometimes beekeepers use this method to immediately pull the wire onto new frames if there is no stretching machine.

How long is the wire required for a rectangular frame

The length of the wire is calculated using the formula for the perimeter of the frame. For example, the length is 25 cm, and the width is 20 cm.According to the formula for calculating the perimeter, the simplest problem is solved: 2x (25 + 20) = 90. Structures measuring 25x20 cm will require 90 cm of wire. To be sure, you can make a small margin.

How to pull strings on bee frames

The wire stretching process consists of 5 steps:

  • Depending on the selected winding scheme, holes are drilled on the side rails or the top and bottom strip. A template or a hole punch will help simplify the task.
  • Hammer in on opposite strips, one pull nail at a time.
  • The wire is pulled through the holes with a snake.
  • First, one end of the wire is wound around the nail.
  • Stretching is carried out for the free end of the string and only then its end is wound on the second tension nail.

The tension force is determined by the sound of the string. The wire pulled back by your finger should make the sound of a guitar. If it is deaf or absent, the string is pulled.

Tools for making frames for beehives

When it is required to establish the production of frames for beehives or the farm has a large apiary, it is optimal to acquire a special machine - a conductor. The device is a rectangular box without a bottom and a lid. Along the perimeter, the internal size of the template is equal to the size of the frame. The higher the walls of the conductor, the more inventory will be made for the hive at a time.

Beekeepers usually make a wooden template from planks. Holes are cut in opposite walls, bars are inserted. They will be an emphasis for the dialed side strips of the frames. A gap is left between the bars and the walls of the conductor. Its size is equal to the thickness of the strip plus 1 mm for the free entry of the workpiece.

It is important to consider a margin of clearance when calculating the size of the conductor. Usually 10 frames are inserted into the template. Side bar width 37 mm. In order for the required number of frames to fit into the template in width, 10 is multiplied by 37, plus 3 mm of the gap margin. It turns out the width of the machine is 373 mm. The length of the template corresponds to the width of the frames. For Ruth and Dadan hives, the parameter is 435 mm. The top and bottom planks of the frames remain outside the template during assembly.

The assembly of the equipment for the beehives begins with the insertion of side slats with lugs into the gap between the bars and the walls of the conductor. First, take only the upper or lower slats. The workpieces are laid in the lugs of the side plates, fastened with nails or self-tapping screws. The machine is turned over and the same actions are repeated on the other side. When all the structures for the hives are assembled, they are removed from the template, but first the fixing bars are pulled out.

A metal frame machine for beehives is welded from a square tube. The design is almost identical, only bolts are used to clamp the workpieces. In addition, there is no need to cut eyelets in side rails and bars. At the end of the assembly of the upper part of the frame, the bolt is released, the mechanism is moved down and again clamped. The lower bar is inserted with force, like a spacer. The elements are connected with a pneumatic construction stapler.

Options for the correct arrangement of frames in the hive

The number of honeycomb frames in the hive depends on its size. In addition, take into account how many sections the house consists of. In the center, nesting honeycomb frames are always placed for brood. In single-tiered horizontal hives, they are installed in one row. Inside multi-tiered vertical hives, nesting honeycomb frames are placed one above the other. The side frames and all those found in the upper stores of the hive are used for honey.

Inside the hive, honeycomb frames are placed from north to south. The side strips are facing the tap hole. This is called a cold drift. The house is turned north. There is a method of warm drift, when honeycomb frames inside the hive are placed parallel to the tap hole.

Warm skid has many benefits:

  • during wintering in each hive, the death of bees decreases to 28%;
  • the queen conducts uniform sowing of the cells, the brood increases;
  • inside the hive, the threat of a draft is excluded;
  • bees build honeycombs faster.

Important! The warm drift method is popular for pavilions. There is no need to push the hives into the aisle due to the possibility of access from the rear wall.

Production of innovative frames for bees

Modern innovative frameworks are not yet very popular. Beekeepers are wary of plastic. The technology was developed after conducting high-tech experiments. For a long time, it was believed that the optimal passage for a bee between the combs is 12 mm. However, with the help of laser measurements, it was found that in natural conditions the gap does not exceed 9 mm. Used for many years in hives, wooden honeycomb frames distort natural standards.

The innovative model was released with narrowed side slats 34 mm wide. When installed in the hive, a natural gap of 9 mm is maintained. The advantage of the innovative model immediately became apparent in the normalization of the temperature regime inside the hive, and in the improvement of natural ventilation.

Conclusion

Hive frames are considered the second most important beekeeping equipment. The calmness and development of the bee colony, the amount of collected honey depends on their quality.


Watch the video: Building Bee Hives u0026 Frames From Scratch. Worth it? (May 2022).

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