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One of the most numerous breeds of Russia - the Bashkir horse - was formed in the region of the South Urals. It was formed as a universal horse of an agricultural people. The Bashkirs, if they wandered, were not far away. But the proximity of nomadic tribes left an imprint on the traditions of keeping horses.
Like horses of nomadic peoples, Bashkir horses were kept in the steppe herds, getting their own food in winter. Since many Bashkirs kept herds of 400-500 heads, it is not surprising that hay was not prepared for them. People only fed the horses that they left in the house to work in the winter.
The Bashkirians were used as a riding horse for grazing and driving cattle and as a draft force for a plow. In winter, along with the Vyatka, Bashkir troikas rode along the roads of the Russian Empire.
This breed was widespread in the 17th-18th centuries. She was bred not only in the territory of modern Bashkiria, but also in the Kazan, Perm, Samara provinces. The total number of horses of the Bashkir breed numbered 600 thousand heads.
Such a large population allowed the formation of entire regiments of "wild Bashkirs" where the Bashkirs served along with their national breed. These regiments played a significant role in both World Wars: 1812 and 1941-1945.
The Bashkir breed has never experienced a crisis in its development. First of all, because these horses have never had a reverent attitude and they have never been shy about using them for food. Today breeding for meat is the main purpose of the Bashkirians. And they are not threatened with extinction. Although the authorities of the Bashkir Republic tried once to bring the breed to extinction.
Ideas of the authorities
It was difficult for the Bashkir people to imagine their life without a horse. Koni Tolpar and Akbuzat play an important role in the Bashkir epic.
In light of this, in 2011, the legislators of Bashkortostan had a "brilliant" idea to ban the export of purebred Bashkir horses from the region. In fact, this would be the murder of the breed, since today Bashkir horses are bought for breeding for meat and milk in the farms of other Russian regions. The largest company "Snipe" has in the Tver region a herd of horses of the Bashkir breed, numbering more than 1000 heads.
Attention! These horses live in historical conditions, independently obtaining food for themselves.
In the Bashkir herds bred for meat, no one especially monitors the purity of the breed and does not select the right producers. Mating of herd horses takes place according to the principle "who is stronger leads the school", which means that all mares in the school belong to the school stallion. Therefore, the description and photo of the Bashkir horse breed give a poor idea of real animals. The photo above is the type of Bashkir horse that people usually imagine. But there are also horses with a very "heavy" front, similar to the Przewalski's horse, but with an even lower neck opening. There are also horses that are difficult to distinguish from a riding horse.
Usually these are horses of a rough constitution, with a large head. They have a wide forehead with wide ganaches. The neck is short, thick, damp. Low yield. The body is massive, it can be either long or short. The chest is wide. This compensates for the small stature of the horses and even a tall person does not look funny when sitting on a Bashkir. The back is wide and strong. The croup is moderately lowered, rounded. The legs are short and strong. The tail and mane are very thick. In winter, Bashkir horses are overgrown with very long hair with a thick undercoat that protects them from the cold.
Height at the withers is from 138 to 145 cm. But due to the massive body, the Bashkir horse does not look like a pony.
Bashkir horses are surprisingly diverse in color. They have all the options for the main colors: red, bay, black, gray. All variants of the Savras and all variants of suits with the Cremello gene. There is even a forelock suit.
Of the suits with the Cremello gene, the dun and salty colors are very much appreciated.
Particularly beautiful is the nighting horse with a golden sheen of the coat. Such brilliance clearly indicates an admixture of one of the five "brilliant" breeds in the Bashkir horses:
It is difficult to understand when this mixing took place. This could happen during the wars, when whole regiments were formed from Bashkir horses and no one monitored the purity of the breed.
Pros of the breed
These horses are distinguished by excellent health, they are able to eat very coarse feed, often getting their own food from under the snow on their own. They have good strong, regular hooves that rarely require shoeing. They are very economical to maintain and hold the body perfectly, "swollen from the air."
Advice! It is not recommended to keep the Bashkir on a very starving ration, he can find food for himself.
And this food may turn out to be neighboring decorative plantings.
Since the breed is aboriginal, the self-preservation instinct of these horses is fully preserved. The Bashkir always thinks how this or that action will end for him. He cannot be driven into the swamp. He will not romantically jump until he falls dead. At best, he'll just balk. At worst, he will drop the rider and offer to do without the horse.
There are no problems with them when grazing on a leash. Horses often cut their legs with a rope after they become entangled in a leash. There are no Bashkirs. If everything is really bad, he will stand and wait for the person.
The Bashkirs have good movement compared to other aboriginal breeds. Relatively wide free stride and canter. The trot is very soft, comfortable for long distance travel. And a technical jump, which is confirmed by the photo of this horse of the Bashkir breed.
Cons of the breed
Unfortunately, these horses have more disadvantages. These are horses only for a confident rider. No matter how old the rider is, he must be confident in himself. Bashkir people live according to the law of the jungle "who is stronger is right". Sensing an insecure rider, the Bashkir will do everything to poison a person's life. Even if he does not plant a newcomer, knowing that he will be punished for this, the Bashkir will invent 1000 and 1 way to make a person understand that a horse is the leader in their tandem.
The Bashkir people are well aware of their rights, but they prefer to forget their duties. Knowing perfectly well when they are not threatened with punishment, they immediately begin to insist on their rights. Moreover, the Bashkirian will not succumb to any provocations if he knows that he will be punished.
They do not have much respect for a person, constantly testing the strength of both the rider and the stall (suddenly it will be possible to break it), and the rope in the pasture (if it breaks, you can go for a walk).
A herd aboriginal horse does not need to take care of the cleanliness of the place where it lives. After all, the whole steppe is at her disposal. This was reflected in the Bashkir people. They do not know how to stand in the cramped stalls of the stable, stirring all the litter under their feet. In nature, wild horses protect themselves from bloodsuckers by wallowing in liquid mud. Therefore, when going out to the levada after the rain, the Bashkir first of all finds a suitable puddle to fall in it.
Bashkirians are beautiful only in professional art photos. In reality, they give the impression of unsightly large-headed horses and do not make adults want to sit on them. People who come for rent ride Arabian horses much more willingly. Although both breeds are similar in size, and the Bashkir breeds are much more powerful.
Today, the main sphere of use of the Bashkir horse breed is the production of meat and koumiss. Often, Bashkir horses are bought directly from the herd for private farmsteads and horse clubs. Horses quickly get used to it and become tame. Previously, children were even taught horse riding on the Bashkirskys, but now this breed is considered not at all for children. This is partly true.
When using the Bashkir horse as a training or rental horse, his riders are constantly changing. At the same time, this breed is distinguished by its loyalty to the owner and a fairly harmful character. If the Bashkir gets along with the owner, he will take him out of any situation. With a constant change of horsemen, the Bashkir begins to look for his own benefit: who to intimidate so that he does not come up anymore; whom to drop off; under whom to refuse to move at all.
The Bashkirs used in clubs have one interesting feature: the horse does not forgive even the slightest mistake of the rider. At the same time, if the horse makes a mistake, almost sending the rider to the next world, it just gets up, naively blinks, and on the face is written in large letters: “Just think, I was mistaken. Everyone is wrong. "
But with proper preparation and if no mistakes were made, the Bashkir horse is able to pass routes up to 120 cm high without falling down.
They can also work in dressage, but according to the owners themselves, due to the specific physique and character traits, it takes many times more effort and time to prepare and train the Bashkir horse for the required elements than in preparing a sports breed.
Important! If you need a result in a dressage competition, the Bashkir breed is the wrong choice.
But in the Crimea there is a positive experience of using Bashkir horses in races. So far, the level of these competitions is low and the Bashkirians have come up well for him, which is confirmed by the photo of the Bashkir horses from the race.
Olga Popova, p. Furmanovka
We had three Bashkirs in the section. Two stallions and a mare. The stallions were calmly sent to the rest of the shift. But the mare in the stall secretly bit us all, beat other horses in the shift with their backs, if they drove up close. All Bashkirians were "self-transporters". Until the riders were wrong. As a result, the mare did not even approach the lying sticks for a year, and one of the stallions flatly refused to jump "stone wall". The third Bashkir jumped everything, but if he decided to jump this barrier, and not that one, that's it. He will jump the chosen one. Do not turn away. And this is withdrawal from the competition.
Dmitry Anisimov, Samara
While serving in the army, he rested in the Crimean sanatorium. Back in the Union. We were invited for a horse ride in the mountains. And there they put him on the Bashkir. Small, round, shaggy. And quirky. I, a self-confident idiot, thought that if I could manage an airplane, I could manage a horse. And this horse smelled like a teapot on itself, from a place to a gallop and right under a horizontally growing branch. In general, like in a movie, I grabbed a branch and hung, and the horse ran further. They say that they were looking for him for 2 weeks. He was from some distant village and went home.
The Bashkir horse is perfectly adapted to survival in wild natural conditions and can be used as a versatile one in private backyards. It is suitable for both riding and harnessing, but requires a steady hand and skill in handling horses.