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When the owner of the garden notices that the leaves of the cherry are turning yellow, and even at the beginning or the height of the season, when they are supposed to turn green, he immediately wants to do something to help the tree. But there are so many reasons for yellowing and even falling of cherry leaves that you cannot glance at them all with a passing glance. This is inappropriate care, and various diseases, and adverse weather conditions, and pests. Therefore, before starting treatment, it is necessary to comprehensively investigate the tree and identify all possible causes that could lead to a similar result.
Signs of diseases in cherries
In addition to yellowing of the leaves, other signs can often be observed in sweet cherries, which can be symptoms of both diseases or damage by pests, and inappropriate conditions for the growth and development of trees.
Why cherries do not bud
If the sweet cherry planted last year does not show signs of life in the spring, and the buds on it do not bloom on time, then perhaps the matter is not at all about diseases or pests, but simply mistakes were made when choosing a place for planting or the planting process itself. The most common mistakes are the following:
- close occurrence of groundwater;
- the choice of a shady, cold or draft-blown planting site;
- deepening of the grafting site of the seedling or its root collar;
- incorrect or untimely trimming;
- insufficient or excessive feeding.
Another most common reason is the banal freezing of the roots or stem of the sweet cherry. Moreover, the buds may not bloom not so much from significant frosts (although cherries do not tolerate frosts below -30 ° C), but from sudden temperature changes during the day in the winter-spring period. It can reach 10-20 degrees.
It is quite simple to make sure that the buds could not bloom due to the freezing of the roots or stem. A small incision is made on the branches, as well as on a selected piece of root, and the color of the bark and cambium is assessed:
- If the color is light brown, it means that the damage from frost is minor and amenable to treatment.
- If it is dark brown, then the degree of freezing is quite high, and it will be much more difficult to help the cherry.
Why does cherries dry
In a cherry, regardless of its age, individual branches may begin to dry out. If you do not take any measures, then soon the tree may dry out completely. What are the reasons that can lead to the fact that cherry branches dry?
The first thing to remember, especially when it comes to a young cherry seedling, is whether it was planted correctly. Deepening during planting can lead to drying out of individual branches as early as the next year after planting.
Another reason may be weather conditions unfavorable for the development of sweet cherries, first of all, prolonged heat and frost. The fact is that varieties bred by breeders for a temperate climate do not tolerate heat well. Conversely, heat-resistant cherry varieties can be easily damaged by frost.
To protect from the heat, it is enough to provide plentiful and regular watering of the cherries.
Advice! To retain moisture in the soil, the surface of the earth around the trunk is mulched abundantly with natural or artificial materials.
To protect the trunk of cherries from frost holes and sunburns in the autumn, they should be whitewashed with a special garden solution. It is advisable to completely cover young cherry seedlings up to 3 years old for the winter using agrofibre or other insulating materials. With age, trees become more resistant to frost.
The branches of cherries can dry out due to diseases: verticillosis and monoliosis. Details about the treatment of these diseases will be described below. The activity of some pests, for example, the Californian scale insect and bark beetles, can also lead to the drying of cherry branches. Methods of dealing with them are described in detail in a separate chapter.
Why do cherry leaves turn yellow
Yellowing and dropping of leaves can also be the result of a variety of factors:
- Too hot weather and, as a result, lack of moisture in the soil.
- The proximity of groundwater and waterlogging of the root system.
- Damage to cherry trees as a result of a harsh winter.
- Various fungal diseases.
- Density of the crown.
- Lack of nutrients in the soil.
- Weakening of cherries as a result of pests.
Why does sweet cherry shed fruit?
If the cherry blossoms too abundantly, then there is nothing surprising in the fact that immediately after its completion, the tree sheds part of the ovaries. Thus, there is a natural rationing of the number of fruits that cherries can feed.
If the ovaries begin to fall off at a later date, especially when a significant amount of ripening fruits begin to fall from the tree, then it's time to sound the alarm.
Fruit shedding can occur for the following reasons:
- the variety is self-fertile. For fruiting, he needs a different kind of cherry tree growing nearby;
- increased acidity of the soil;
- lack of nutrients (after flowering, cherries especially need feeding);
- lack of light due to thickening of the crown;
- overloaded harvest - in productive years, the cherry needs additional fertilizing after fruiting, otherwise the tree may not have enough strength for the next season to form a sufficient number of fruits;
- drought during flowering can lead to dropping of ovaries and unripe fruits;
- bad weather conditions during the flowering period. If during this period windy weather with rain is observed and, as a result, the absence of bees and other pollinating insects, then a good cherry harvest in this season can not be expected;
- invasion of pests: flower beetle, moth and cherry (cherry) flies.
Attention! Cherry pollen can only be fertilized for 3-5 days.
Description of cherry diseases and their treatment
The most common are numerous fungal diseases that cause various spots on the leaves of cherries and their dropping, rotting of berries and damage to the trunk of cherries. These diseases are carried by spores, wind and contaminated instruments.
Bacterial diseases - caused by bacteria, can also be carried by insect pests.
Viral diseases - spread mainly by pests. They affect the vascular system of plants, and only preventive measures can help to combat them. Effective methods of treating plants infected with viruses have not yet been found.
Non-communicable diseases are manifested mainly due to improper care of cherries.
Cherry chlorosis: photo and treatment
Chlorosis is a common physiological disease of sweet cherry, which has a non-infectious nature. The main symptom of chlorosis is the numerous yellow leaves that fall off at the wrong time.
The greatest risk zone includes those cherries that grow on highly calcareous soils with a high level of groundwater standing and with a mismatch between the rootstock and the scion of the seedling. Trees develop only a superficial root system, thereby lacking essential nutrients. Fruiting decreases, over time they may even dry out.
To treat this disease, an integrated approach is required, as a result of which, first of all, the conditions for the activity of the root system will improve:
- it is advisable to use soft water from natural reservoirs or rainwater for irrigation;
- trees cannot be fertilized with fresh manure, but nitrogen fertilization is necessary first of all. It is best to use humus in conjunction with poultry droppings, diluted 10-12 times with water;
- quick help in the treatment of chlorosis can be provided by spraying the tree with a solution of ferrous sulfate (50-70 g per 10 liters of water). It is better to repeat the procedure at least three times at intervals of two weeks;
- in the fall, it is useful to add ferrous sulfate mixed with humus or compost in several holes around the circumference of the tree crown to a depth of 60 cm (0.15 kg of ferrous sulfate is taken for 10 kg of humus);
- to improve the oxygen regime in the zone of the root system, you can use a solution of potassium permanganate (30-40 g per 10 l). One tree requires about 10-15 liters of mortar.
Advice! In early spring, even before the leaves bloom, it is useful to treat the cherry crown with a concentrated solution of ferrous sulfate (300-400 g per 10 liters).
Cherry gum flow
This is rather not even a disease, but an alarming sign indicating that the tree is bad. A viscous yellowish liquid - gum - is released from cracks and holes in the bark and solidifies in air.
Gum therapy is associated with many fungal diseases: moniliosis, clotterosporia and others. For the prevention of gum disease, it is important to strictly observe the agrotechnology of growing sweet cherries. All wounds on the bark must be treated with copper sulfate, and then covered with garden varnish.
Advice! For the prevention of gum removal, it is recommended to use the furrowing of the bark around the damaged areas.
A very dangerous fungal disease that actively spreads in rainy summers or areas with a humid climate. First, pinkish-brown specks appear on the leaves, and a pale pink bloom can be seen on the underside. If you do not take action, the leaves begin to blacken and fall off by mid-summer.
Treatment of the disease consists in three-fold processing of cherries with a 1-3% solution of copper sulfate or Bordeaux mixture: with swelling of the buds, after flowering and harvesting. It is also possible to use Topaz (1 ml per 3 l of water) and Hom (4 g per 1 l of water) preparations for the treatment.
Verticillary wilting of cherries
It is this disease that is most often the cause of the drying of cherries. Moreover, mainly young trees are susceptible to it. If a branch begins to dry in early spring at the same time as buds and buds open, then with a high probability this is verticillosis. In addition, brown spots appear on the branches and trunk, from which rusty gum begins to ooze. Buds and buds can dry out within a week or two after blooming. If you do not take measures for treatment, young or weakened cherries can dry out within one season. Mature trees can last up to 7-8 years, but in the end they will also die.
To prevent the disease, you should not plant solanaceous plants (tomatoes, eggplants, tobacco, potatoes) near cherries, as well as melons, garden strawberries and sunflowers. Also, for preventive purposes, root dressings are carried out with urea or an aqueous solution of potassium sulfate (1 tablespoon per 10 liters of water).
Advice! The simplest thing is to scatter wood ash in the root zone. One tree will take 300-400 g.
Disease spores often get into trees from the soil when the roots or trunk are injured, so you should be especially careful when planting and loosening the soil around the seedling.
At the first signs of the disease, the tree must be treated with a powerful antifungal agent, for example, Topsin-M (70%), using a 0.1% solution to save the cherries from drying out.
When gum appears, the wounds are slightly cleaned and treated with garden varnish. And for the winter, the trunk of a cherry tree is coated with a mixture of copper sulfate and lime.
Sweet cherry moniliosis
This disease is also called gray rot or monilial burn due to specific symptoms. The branches, and the trunk of the cherry, turn black and dry as if they had suffered from a fire, and the berries become covered with gray tubercles and begin to rot quickly.
Due to the strong spread of the disease in recent years, it is recommended to grow varieties of sweet cherries that are resistant to moniliosis:
- Valery Chkalov;
- Van Compact.
Infection with the spores of the disease occurs through the pistils of flowers, and the flowers and ovaries are the first to suffer - they turn brown and dry. The development of the disease is very rapid, especially in cool and humid weather, so immediate treatment measures must be taken:
- cut off all damaged branches with the capture of healthy tissue and burn immediately. They also destroy all the club and plant debris on the ground;
- if there are cracks in the bark, then they are the main site of infection. They must be cleaned, treated with 1-3% copper sulfate and covered with garden varnish;
- process the cherries after flowering and after a month with Bordeaux liquid or copper sulfate;
- to prevent the disease in the fall, the trunks are painted with garden whitewash with the addition of copper sulfate;
- for treatment, you can also use the drugs Strobi, Skor, Topaz and Horus.
Fruit rot of sweet cherry: control and prevention measures
Symptoms of the disease appear primarily on berries and slightly resemble moniliosis. These are brownish specks, which then actively grow moldy. Fruit rot spots, in contrast to moniliosis, are not chaotically arranged, but in the form of concentric circles. In addition, cherry leaves remain intact and not affected.
Prevention of the disease is the treatment of cherries in the spring against diseases and pests with the help of fungicides (Abiga-peak, copper oxychloride, Bordeaux mixture) and sufficient fertilizing with mineral fertilizers. For the treatment of a tree, the same drugs are used, only the processing is performed after flowering and harvesting.
Hole spot or klyasternosporiosis
Among the diseases of sweet cherry leaves, klyasternosporiosis is the most common. The disease can be diagnosed by the appearance of reddish specks with a dark border on the leaves. After a couple of weeks, holes form in their place - hence the name of the disease. After a while, the leaves dry out completely and fall off. The fruits can dry directly on the branches.
As a preventive measure, spraying of cherries after flowering with a 1% solution of copper sulfate is used.
Treatment of the disease consists in cutting off branches with diseased leaves and treating the cuts with sorrel juice three times every 10 minutes. To prepare it, 1 kg of sorrel leaves are poured into 10 liters of water, insisted for 2-3 hours, rubbed and squeezed out the resulting juice. After that, all the cuts are covered with garden pitch.
Brown spot, or phyllosticosis
The disease manifests itself as round brown spots with black dots on either side of the leaf. With severe damage, the leaves may also fall off. Prevention and treatment of the disease is the same as for perforated spot.
Powdery mildew on cherries
With this disease, shoots and leaves are covered with a white felt bloom. Later, black dots appear on it. If a young cherry seedling dries up, then, most likely, this is the result of the work of powdery mildew. The disease most of all annoys young trees, especially when heat and dryness sets in after rainy weather. For adult cherries, powdery mildew is not so dangerous, but it still reduces their winter hardiness and reduces productivity.
For prevention, it is necessary to cut off the affected shoots, burn them and carefully cover the fallen leaves in the soil.
For treatment with obvious signs of infection, spraying with any fungicides is used 4-6 times per season with an interval of 10 days.
Attention! Fungicide treatment is not allowed during flowering and 3 weeks before the berries ripen.
Rust on cherries
The disease is also called cylindrosporosis, or white rust. If in the middle of summer there are no leaves on the cherry, it means that white rust ruled here.The disease causes complete leaf fall on cherries in July, which can cause trees to weaken and freeze out in winter. Treatment consists in burning the fallen leaves, cutting out diseased and dry branches, and insulating the tree especially carefully for the winter.
Among the diseases of sweet cherry fruits, scab is far from the most dangerous. As a result of the disease, the leaves become stained and curl up into a tube, green fruits do not ripen, and the skin cracks on mature ones. For treatment, Kuprozan powder is used, which is scattered around the roots of the cherry. With its solution, you can spray the fruits and leaves. After harvest, Horus can also be used for treatment.
Curly cherry leaves
Another fungal disease of sweet cherry, in which the leaves become wrinkled and curled with noticeable swelling. And on their underside, a white sticky coating is well recognized.
Prevention and treatment measures are the same as for most fungal diseases - spraying trees and the soil under them in early spring with a solution of ferrous sulfate (20 g per 5 l of water) or 1% Bordeaux mixture.
Rasp of cherry leaves
With this disease, the leaves are noticeably deformed, as if they swell between the veins, and their shape is slightly sharpened. The disease is viral in origin and cannot be treated.
Another viral disease, for the treatment of which effective drugs have not yet been invented. Light yellow stripes appear on the leaves along the veins or in the form of circles on the leaf surface. To combat the disease, first of all, it is necessary to control the appearance of the pests that spread it.
Diseases of the cherry trunk are very dangerous, as they often lead to the inevitable death of the tree. False tinder fungus affects wood so that it begins to resemble a sponge and the tree is able to break from a strong gust of wind. The fungus grows most often from cracks in the lower part of the trunk.
For prevention purposes, the autumn whitewashing of the trunks and spraying the tree in early spring with a solution of ferrous sulfate (2 glasses per 10 liters) helps. For treatment, it is necessary to use stronger means, for example, treatment with Nitrofen (1 glass per 10 liters).
Attention! To stop the sporulation of an already appeared fungus, tinder fungi must be cut in July, when the spores have not yet ripened.
Sulfur yellow tinder fungus
The disease is very similar to the previous one. The fruiting bodies of the resulting fungus have a predominantly yellow tint. The methods of treatment and prevention are the same as in the case of the false tinder fungus.
Sweet cherry bacteriosis
This disease, which manifests itself on cherries no earlier than 4 years of age, is of bacterial origin. In the people it is also often called bacterial cancer of the cherry, or ulcer. There are still no drugs for the treatment of this disease that would guarantee 100% success.
The disease manifests itself in the form of dark watery spots on fruits and leaves. Later, they appear on the stalks and buds, as well as on the bark of the tree. The disease develops actively in cold and damp weather, and in dry conditions it may not manifest itself at all.
Despite the lack of visible methods of treatment, it is still not worth giving up before the disease. Throughout the summer, it is necessary to cut off wilted shoots, brown inflorescences, ovaries and spoiled fruits. All this should be immediately burned. Thus, the development of the disease can be stopped, but not completely destroyed.
Bacterial burn of cherries: treatment and photo
The first sign of this disease is blackening of the cherry leaves around the edges. Then the leaves of the cherry wither, and the whole branches dry out. There is no official cure for this disease, but many enthusiasts try to spray and inject into the trunk of a tree with conventional antibiotics such as Streptomycin. The disease can recede if you act systematically and regularly. As an additional treatment, spraying the tree with fungicides, in particular, copper sulfate, is used.
Cherry pests and control, photo
Not only do the pests harm directly the leaves, fruits and bark of sweet cherry, they also carry dangerous and incurable viral diseases.
Ants on cherries: how to get rid of
Ants are not dangerous in themselves, but as carriers of aphids. Therefore, while the latter are not observed on cherries, it is most effective to use the preparation Thunder-2 against ants, which crumbles in places of their accumulation.
Attention! It is very popular among the people to mix boric acid with sugar syrup and water ant paths with this mixture.
Aphids on cherries: how to get rid of
Aphids are the most common pest not only on cherries, but also on most fruit and berry crops. Appears in early spring and especially likes to nibble on the youngest leaves of trees weakened after a strong spring pruning.
Aphids are often fought with folk remedies: solutions and infusions of ash, celandine, dandelion and garlic.
Before flowering, effective chemicals can also be used: Commander, Aktara, Confidor.
How to get rid of black aphids on cherries
Black aphid is quite common on cherries and differs from its green relative only in black. The pests are so small that they are practically indistinguishable. But their presence can be detected by the following signs:
- leaves curl inward and fall off;
- black dots can be seen on the inside of them;
- Ants live in large numbers nearby.
The fight against this pest does not cause any particular difficulties, because, if you do not wait for its abundant reproduction, then in the spring it is easily destroyed with the help of any insecticide, for example, Fitoverma.
The pest is a bronze beetle up to 1 cm long. Beetles and their larvae overwinter in the soil. They crawl to the surface during the flowering period of cherries and feed first on the buds and flowers, and then on the ovaries and fruits. Pests are quite capable of gnawing holes of different sizes in the leaves. Therefore, if the leaves of the cherry are in the holes, then the weevil most likely worked here. The larvae are laid in fruits.
To combat pests, they are shaken off the trees and destroyed. To treat trees, they are sprayed before and after flowering with Inta-Vir, Fufanon or Kinmiks.
It is thanks to the activity of the cherry fly that cherries can fall off fruits for no apparent reason. The caterpillars of this pest are tiny, almost invisible to the eye, white worms. The pest is especially dangerous for middle and late varieties of sweet cherry.
To combat cherry fly, the tree is sprayed twice a season with Spark or Lightning preparations. The first time is at the end of April, when the average air temperature exceeds + 15 ° С. The second time is about 20 days later. In order not to leave any chance for the pest, they spray the ground around the cherries with the same preparations once a week until the end of summer.
The pest has a very small size (1-2 mm) and a protective coloration, so it is difficult to notice it. But if you look closely, you can see subtle growths on the bark of the branches. The scabbard sucks sap from plants, so leaves and branches can dry out and fall off if severely damaged.
To treat a tree and fight a pest, you must first cut and burn all damaged branches, then wash the branches with a strong jet of water, freeing them from adhering insects. Only after this, the branches are abundantly sprayed with a solution of Aktara or Confidor.
The main sign of bark beetle damage is the presence of holes in wilted branches or trunks. In order for the pest to become uninteresting for the sweet cherry, it needs full care. In the spring, before bud break, the tree affected by the pest is treated with special preparations for the bark beetle.
All dried and damaged branches must be cut and burned.
This pest is able to build whole nests of cobwebs on cherries. Caterpillars eat the flesh of berries and leaves to veins. For the fight, drugs Iskra-M, Pyriton are used. For an adult tree, the consumption of the drug is 3-4 liters.
Cherry shoot moth
This pest can destroy the buds, flowers and leaves of cherries. They fight it during the period of swelling of the kidneys with the help of Karbofos, Holon preparations.
Control and prevention measures
To prevent the invasion of pests and diseases, it is necessary to treat the cherries with urea in early spring, before the sap flow begins. You should spray not only the trees themselves, but also the ground around them. After a couple of weeks, you can spray the plants with a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid.
And in the fall, it is necessary to completely cut out all damaged and dry branches. And whitewash the cherry trunk with a garden solution with the addition of any copper-containing preparation.
Thus, if the leaves of the cherry turn yellow, then all is not lost. With an attentive attitude to the tree, you can not only save it from all sorts of misfortunes, but also give it a long life with annual abundant fruiting.