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The hawthorn is a representative of the genus Hawthorn of the Pink family. The specific name in translation means "strong". And for good reason, since the plant really has strong wood. Perhaps this speaks of the ability of the single-footed hawthorn variety for longevity. The officially recorded lifespan of this culture is 200-300 years.
In the natural environment, the single-pistil hawthorn (Latin Crataegus monogyna) grows in the territory of Moldova, Ukraine, in the Carpathians, Crimea, in the North-West Caucasus, in the Baltic States, in the European part of Russia. Has been seen in Western European countries. For full-fledged growth, he chooses areas near rivers, dry oak forests, on the edges, less often the hawthorn variety is found in pine-deciduous forests, on rocky slopes, sandy soils. It can grow singly or in groups of shrubs.
Description of single-footed hawthorn
The hawthorn belongs to the category of ornamental shrubs and trees. Botanical features of the plant.
- The height is 4-6 m, under favorable conditions it is possible even higher.
- The crown is dense, openwork, symmetrical, 2 m wide.
- Old shoots are glabrous, young ones are densely hairy. There are a few spines up to 1 cm long, which are often absent.
- The bark of the branches is reddish-gray, flaking. The trunk is straight.
- The foliage is 2-3 cm long and 1-2.5 cm wide. The shape is ovoid or oval, asymmetrical, with solid-edged lobes. Several teeth are visible at the top of the leaf.
- Stipules are thin. The petiole is ½ of the leaf length.
- In summer, the foliage is leathery, dark green in color with a glossy sheen. In the autumn season, it is colored red, orange.
- The fruits of the hawthorn are single-footed, spherical, red, rarely yellow. Their length is 6-10 cm. Inside the bone is 7x5 mm in size.
- Inflorescences are large, 10-18 flowers each.
- Sepals are triangular-lanceolate. 20 stamens, red anthers.
- The diameter of the flowers is 1-1.5 cm. The petals are white.
Attention! Almost all single-seed varieties are mistakenly referred to as single-poultry hawthorn.
Characteristics of the variety
The varieties of hawthorn are different in the shape of the crown, color of leaves, texture and color of flowers. Among garden forms, the most common:
- pyramidal - the plant has the shape of a pyramid;
- weeping - a bush with branches down;
- crimson -with single dark red flowers;
- pink weeping - with pink inflorescences wandering down;
- pink - pink flower petals with white stripes;
- white terry - inflorescences of the corresponding color and texture;
- red terry;
- constantly blooming - a shrub that blooms throughout the summer;
- split-leaved - a plant with deeply dissected foliage;
- white and variegated - hawthorn with variegated leaves;
- thornless - shoots are devoid of thorns.
There are also new subspecies of the monopodous hawthorn obtained by hybridization. A bright representative is the variety "Rosea Flore Pleno" with double flowers of dark pink color. A no less popular species is the one-footed hawthorn Strickta. The tree has a colonial or oval crown. It is used for landscaping in cramped urban environments.
Drought resistance and frost resistance
The hawthorn variety easily tolerates sudden changes in temperature and humidity. It can grow successfully in continental climates. For established shrubs, there is no need for shelter in winter. However, young one-year-old shoots can freeze. Hawthorn easily tolerates drought; for a long time it can do without watering.
Productivity and fruiting
The flowering period of the hawthorn variety begins in May-June. The fruiting period begins in September. The shrub is characterized by a regular, abundant harvest of fruits. Ripe berries of one-poultry hawthorn have a rich, persistent aroma, which, unfortunately, does not convey a photo. They are edible.
Attention! The hawthorn is an excellent honey plant.
Disease and pest resistance
The single-pistil hawthorn variety often serves as the target of attack by harmful insects: aphids, honey plants, leaf beetles, weevils, and ticks. Especially if it grows near orchards. However, the main enemy that can cause significant damage to the plant is the hawthorn. The shrub can also suffer from fungal diseases.
Advantages and disadvantages
Judging by the reviews of amateur gardeners and professionals, the main positive qualities of the single-pistil hawthorn variety include:
- ability to withstand low temperatures;
- grows during dry periods;
- undemanding to the composition of soils;
- good immunity;
- abundant fruiting;
- suitable for creating a hedge;
- fruits have medicinal properties;
- gives self-seeding.
Disadvantages of hawthorn:
- has a high shoot-forming ability, which implies frequent cutting of the bush;
- freezing of young shoots is possible.
The hawthorn of the single-pistil variety is a non-capricious plant in terms of planting and care. It can grow in any environment. Under the right conditions, the shrub gives a moderate annual growth - 25 cm in length and the same in width.
Attention! Decorative durability 35-40 years.
It is rather difficult to name the exact dates of planting of the monopestile hawthorn variety. It all depends on the climatic features of the region. The farther south, the earlier the planting is carried out in the spring, and later in the fall.
It is necessary to monitor the condition of the shrub, that is, it cannot be planted when it is in the growing season. It is advisable to wait until the single-footed hawthorn is getting ready for bed. But in general, the ornamental culture does not require special weather conditions, it is enough for the soil to warm up slightly in the spring, and not yet freeze in the fall.
Choosing a suitable site and preparing the soil
According to experienced gardeners, single hawthorn varieties are preferably placed in partial shade or in areas with diffused lighting. The scorching rays of the sun can cause thermal burns to the leaves. A hedge requires a thickened planting, where each plant will compete with its neighbor for light. As a result, the bushes will grow on all sides. In a group planting, the single-pistil hawthorn variety is planted at a distance of 2-5 m, and in the alley ones - 5-6 m on an open, sunny plantation.
The soil is irrelevant in this context. Any environment will do, even sandy and rocky ground. However, when planting in obviously scarce soils, fertilizers must be added to the pit: humus and wood ash at the rate of 0.5 liters per 10 liters of land. The preferred soil acidity is pH 7.5-8.
Attention! Common hawthorn is sensitive to soil salinity.
What crops can and cannot be planted nearby
Not the best neighborhood of the hawthorn of the monopestile variety will be with fruit trees, due to the negative mutual influence. For this reason, it is not recommended to plant the plant next to cherry plum, apple, pear, cherry, plum, apricot, peach. Possible neighborhood with thorns, rose hips, tinsel.
Selection and preparation of planting material
The seedlings must first of all be well developed. Their size is chosen depending on the purpose and type of landing. For a two-row hedge, young growth is suitable with a height of 1-1.5 m, for a single-row wall, the plants are taken a little higher. It is important that they have an equally developed root system and aerial part. For planting freestanding trees, you will need a larger planting material, above 2 m.
Immediately before the planting procedure, long roots are cut off the single-pistil hawthorn, broken shoots are removed, the lateral branches and the top are shortened by ½ the growth length, aligning with the total length of the seedling.
When forming the deepening and determining the dimensions, the following factor should be taken into account: the single-pistil hawthorn variety has a rather powerful, branched root system.
- First, a pit is prepared with a depth of 70-80 cm.
- In heavy, poorly water-absorbing soils, a drainage layer is required, consisting of expanded clay, pebbles, crushed stone. The thickness is expected to be 10-15 cm.
- In addition to nutrients (humus, manure, charcoal), 40 g of lime is added to the pit. Leave in this state for 7-10 days.
- A hawthorn sapling is placed in the middle of the recess and sprinkled with earth.
- The soil is not compacted.
- Sprinkle with warm water on top.
The hawthorn monopest does not require serious care. You should only know the basic rules for the full development of a tree.
The shrub needs abundant watering during abnormal weather conditions, during a prolonged drought. And the rest of the time, it is worth moistening the single-footed hawthorn no more than once a month. In addition to watering, the general condition of the plant will be influenced by feeding, but not often. It is enough to fertilize the shrub 2 times a year: in March before budding and in May-June during flowering. In the spring it is preferable to apply a solution of nitrophoska, and in the summer - organic fertilizers.
In addition to watering and fertilizing, the monopest hawthorn variety will need regular pruning. In a well-lit area, the crown has the correct shape. Therefore, only a preventive procedure should be carried out annually, removing dry, broken, unhealthy-looking branches. Remove faded inflorescences. Perform rejuvenating pruning for bushes that are more than 6-7 years old. To do this, cut off the old 2-3 branches. In this place next year, new shoots will appear that will bear fruit. If the single-pistil hawthorn bush has a too thickened appearance, then the inner branches must be cut out in order to increase the illumination inside the plant and the yield.
Despite the fact that the single-pistil hawthorn variety is a winter-hardy plant, at a temperature of 35-40 ° C and especially prolonged frosts, it can freeze. To prevent this from happening, you need to throw snow at the trunk to the maximum height. If there is no snow, then you can wrap it with sacking.
Diseases and pests, methods of control and prevention
You can get rid of annoying insects with an insecticide solution; fungicide preparations will help with fungal diseases. However, in order to maximally protect the single-pistil hawthorn from negative consequences, one should resort to regular preventive measures:
- pruning dry branches;
- collection of fallen leaves;
- treatment of bush with folk remedies;
- weed removal;
- loosening of the surface layer.
Attention! Chemicals are dangerous to human health, so do not neglect personal protective equipment while processing hawthorn.
Application in landscape design
The hawthorn is used for group and individual plantings. Suitable for the device of hedges of different heights, landscaping of personal plots, city parks, alleys. This unpretentious plant is easy to give all sorts of shapes, since it will respond well to a haircut. It is difficult to describe the aesthetic beauty of landscape structures with the single-pistil hawthorn variety, it can only be viewed in the photo, but it is better to see it with your own eyes.
The hawthorn is a decoration of any garden. Even an inexperienced gardener will be able to cope with this shrub, because it does not need special care. It grows well, blooms and bears fruit in any conditions.
Maria Ivanovna, 55 years old, Vladimir
A couple of years ago, a single-poultry hawthorn variety was planted on a personal plot. When buying, we were assured that the plant is 3 years old. The seedling was up to 1.5 m tall, the roots were healthy. Planted in the spring, the soil was pre-fertilized. We watered all summer. The hawthorn gave a small increase. However, after winter, he did not come to life. The kidneys did not hatch, most likely it was frozen because it was not covered. Perhaps something was done wrong. But we are not going to give up, next season we will eat again for a monopest variety, I like this culture.
Vitaly Petrovich, 49 years old, Rossosh
As an experiment, we decided to create a hedge. For this, we bought bushes of one-poultry hawthorn. Planted on the border with a neighboring site. The bushes have been growing for 3 years, but they have not bloomed even once. Cutting off young shoots as they grow, forming a wall. I rarely moisturize the plants; I also don't use fertilizers. During this time, the growth gave about 1 m. I wonder what will turn out in the end, and how many years it will take to grow to the desired size. We want to plant it in the backyard, only the variety needs a flowering one.