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Growing tomatoes requires a lot of care and attention. For their successful cultivation, it is necessary to ensure regular watering and feeding, as well as loosening, forming bushes and a number of other activities. But even with the most careful care, the gardener can lose crops due to the effects of various viruses, bacteria, fungi or pests. Diseases of tomatoes develop gradually, and often the farmer cannot detect the problem at an early stage of appearance. To save tomatoes, the gardener must be prepared in advance for such a situation. The basis of preparation is the ability to identify the symptoms of the disease and take timely measures to eliminate it. Also, an important point in the growing season of tomatoes is the prevention of possible diseases. All the main points of the fight against the most common ailments and measures of protection against harmful microflora and pests will be discussed in the proposed article.
The most common diseases
The main causative agents of diseases in tomatoes are fungi, viruses and bacteria. They can be in the ground or move through the air, get to the surface of the plant along with water. A feature of fungal pathogens is the fact that they can stay in a dormant state of spores for a long time until favorable conditions for reproduction come. So, the appearance of the first symptoms of the disease can occur much later than the moment of infection.
Each disease has its own symptoms, which must be known and determined in a timely manner. When they are observed, measures should be taken immediately to treat tomatoes. Among all the possible ailments of tomatoes, the most common are:
A viral disease is transmitted by contact with insect vectors (aphids) or the remnants of previous vegetation. Infection occurs through damaged areas on the tomato trunk.
Symptoms of the disease can be observed on the leaves of a tomato and its fruits:
- tomato leaves curl, yellow or brown spots and stripes appear on them. With severe damage, tomato leaves die off;
- the trunk and leaves of a tomato become very fragile;
- on the surface of vegetables, you can see rounded spots of a changed color;
- inside the vegetable there are green necrotic spots.
Important! Most often, indeterminate tomatoes grown in a seedling method in a greenhouse are ill with mosaics. Their infection occurs at the time of planting seedlings in the ground.
It is worth noting that the disease virus may be present initially on the surface of tomato seeds. In this case, it is possible to avoid infection of already adult tomatoes only if the strict rules for processing planting material are observed. So, tomato seeds should be treated with a manganese solution or a special chemical before planting. Breeders, in turn, offer farmers hybrids resistant to this disease: "President", "Anyuta", "Bella" and some others.
Unfortunately, already infected tomato bushes cannot be cured of the disease. Among effective methods of control, one can only apply preventive measures such as choosing a tomato variety that is resistant to the disease, treating tomato seeds before sowing, observing the light, temperature and humidity regime of growing, and regularly feeding tomatoes with nutrients.
Important! Tomatoes with signs of mosaic must be removed from the site. Putting sore bushes in compost will help spread the virus among the plants next year.
This is a fungal disease that occurs when the fungus of the same name - phytophthora - gets on the tomatoes. Phytophthora often damages tomatoes in open ground and shows its symptoms in the autumn or summer in unfavorable, rainy conditions.
The characteristic symptoms of the disease are brown spots on the leaves and fruits of tomato. Drying, dark spots can also be seen on the trunk. A vivid example of the manifestation of late blight symptoms is shown in the photo below.
For the prevention of the disease, it is necessary to observe the humidity and temperature regime of growing tomatoes. Proper watering can also significantly reduce the likelihood of tomato disease. So, experienced gardeners use plastic bottles with a cut off bottom for watering tomatoes. By touching the neck of the container in the ground at the very root of the plant, you can get an excellent reservoir for easy and safe watering of tomato bushes.
Important! Often, the development of phytophthora is facilitated by drops of water accumulated in the leaf axil when watering tomatoes by sprinkling.
For the prevention of the disease, you can use special drugs or some folk remedies, for example, an infusion of garlic with potassium permanganate. Whey also helps protect tomatoes from late blight. It is necessary to spray plants for prevention regularly when the weather is favorable for the development of the fungus, after prolonged rains, sharp temperature fluctuations. The preparations "Fitosporin", "Zaslon" and some others can also be used for preventive purposes. The most effective drugs include "Famoxadon", "Mefenoxam", "Mancozeb". These drugs are able to cope with the disease even with significant areas of plant damage, but after using them, tomatoes cannot be consumed for 3 weeks.
This fungal disease can be found under two names at once: black leg and root rot. The disease is often found at the stage of growing tomato seedlings, as well as in adult plants if the irrigation regime is not followed.
The main symptoms of tomato disease are blackening and decay of plant roots, and then of their cuttings. In addition to this, root rot can lead to wilting of tomato leaves and their drying out. Brown spots appear on the surface of the leaf plate during the spread of the disease.
For the prevention of the disease, it is necessary to process them with a preparation from the category of fungicides before planting tomato seeds in the ground. Also, a preventive measure to prevent the development of the disease is the disinfection of the soil by heating and ensuring drainage in containers with seedlings. If, nevertheless, the disease has caught up with already grown tomatoes, then you can use the drug "Ross" or "Pseudobacterin-2".
Important! Watering tomatoes sparsely but plentifully helps prevent blackleg development.
Tomato cladosporium disease (brown spot) is a rather dangerous, rapidly developing fungal disease that affects the leaves of tomatoes, and then the fruits themselves. Harmful fungi enter the tomato body through small lesions and wounds left, for example, after pinching or removing leaves. A favorable condition for the development of tomato cladosporiosis is high air humidity.
In the process of developing this tomato disease, a number of characteristic signs can be observed:
- light yellow concentric spots appear on the surface of the leaves, a brown "fluffy" bloom can be observed on their back side;
- damaged areas of tissue on the sheets of tomatoes eventually turn brown and dry out. At the same time, the leaves of tomatoes curl, sometimes fall off;
- the existing flowers wither and fall off, brown spots appear on the already formed fruits at the place of attachment of the peduncle.
Important! With the development of the disease, the described symptoms can be observed first on the lower leaves of the tomato, after which it rises up the plant.
There are various treatments for this condition. Among folk remedies, spraying tomatoes with a solution of baked milk and iodine is highly effective. For 5 liters of water, add 15 drops of iodine and half a liter of milk. When spraying, you need to especially carefully process the back of the tomato leaves. Wood ash decoction and whey solution can also be used to prevent and control tomato disease.
It is also possible to protect tomatoes and treat them from disease with the help of broad-spectrum fungicides, for example, with the help of the drug "Bravo". You can also treat tomatoes with a self-prepared mixture of chemicals. To do this, add 1 tbsp to a bucket of water. l. copper sulfate and 3 times more sulfur. Also, it is necessary to additionally add polycarbacin to the mixture in the amount of 1 tbsp. The resulting mixture is used to spray tomatoes. You can use the solution for tomato seedlings or already mature plants.
Important! Fungal diseases of the tomato must be treated, including by disinfecting the soil at the place of cultivation.
To do this, you need to shed the soil in the near-stem circle of the tomato with the working solution.
This tomato disease is not caused by fungi or harmful microflora. The reason for the development of the disease is unfavorable conditions for growing tomatoes: high atmospheric temperature and lack of moisture in the soil. Also, the factors provoking the disease are the low potassium content in the soil and its salinity.
A sign of the disease is the appearance of a brown rounded spot on the top of the fruit. The tissues of the vegetable under the dark skin begin to rot, over time, the damaged area becomes soft. At the slightest touch, these tomatoes can fall off.
Important! Disease-affected areas of tomatoes are often infected with various fungi, as a result of which the spots on the tomatoes change from brown to black.
To prevent the disease, it is necessary to regularly water the tomatoes, preventing the soil from drying out. Calcium deficiency can be prevented by liming the soil, as well as the introduction of various dressings containing this trace element. For example, the drug "Brexil Ca" contains both calcium and boron. You need to use the product for spraying tomatoes on a leaf (10 g of substance per bucket of water).
Preparations such as Megafol or Sweet can also be used to protect tomatoes from top rot. They allow tomatoes to better absorb moisture and nutrients from the soil, as well as transport the resulting energy to the most distant leaves and fruits of the tomato. Under the influence of these drugs, tomatoes ripen faster, become more juicy, accumulate a large amount of vitamins, and acquire resistance to low temperatures and stress.
Other types of rot
Diseases can occur on tomatoes completely unexpectedly. The number of possible diseases sometimes frightens even the most experienced farmer. There are several types of rot alone. Below are the most common tomato putrefactive diseases, their photos and treatment.
The manifestation of this tomato disease is a gray bloom on the tomato stem. As the gray spot spreads, the stem stops letting in nutrients and moisture, contributing to the death of the tissues of the plant's vegetative organs. Further development of the disease is manifested by the appearance of a gray bloom on the tomatoes themselves.
The treatment of this tomato disease consists in removing the section of the trunk or leaf damaged by the fungus, as well as treating the tomato with fungicides. For the prevention of the disease, you can use the drug "Glyocladinol".
The primary symptom of infection and spread of this disease is white bloom on the lower leaves of tomatoes. Gradually, tomato leaf plates become watery, losing their usual green color. The disease over time damages the entire tomato bush, rising from the bottom up. The fruits of tomatoes are also covered with a white fluffy bloom. Moreover, this is typical both for vegetables that are at the stage of ripening, and for already quite ripe fruits.
For the prevention of disease and treatment of tomatoes at an early stage of development of a fungal disease, you can use a solution of copper sulfate, urea and zinc.
The symptoms of this disease can be seen on tomato fruits. So, when tomatoes are infected with brown rot, a dark putrefactive spot is formed on the fruits of the tomato along the perimeter of the stalk. Its diameter can be only 3-4 cm, however, the damage inside the fetus is much larger than one would expect.
The disease occurs when the fungus enters the tomato fruit through the existing damage in its skin. The fungus can be brought in by a breeze or a drop of water. As a preventive measure, tomatoes should be treated with Bordeaux mixture or copper chloride.
All fungal diseases of tomato develop in a humid environment, which means that the fight against them is, first of all, in the restoration of a normal microclimate. It is also worth noting that regular feeding of tomatoes and the formation of bushes in the morning can act as preventive measures.
Signs of this viral disease can be observed in already quite adult tomatoes at the stage of ovary formation. The symptom of the disease is the appearance of small dark green cracks in the lower part of the tomato stem. In the process of development of the disease, air roots appear in the places of cracks, while a general wilting of the leaves of the plant is observed, the bush falls and dies.
Warning! Treatment of diseased tomatoes is pointless, after they are lodged, they must be removed from the garden and burned.
The soil where the infected tomatoes grew must be etched with a 2% solution of the "Fitolavin-300" preparation.
Sometimes on the leaves of a tomato, you can see strange formations that resemble flour dust. This symptom signals a tomato infection with powdery mildew. At the site of such spraying, ulcers appear on the tomato leaves over time, and the tomato leaves themselves turn yellow and fall off under the influence of the disease.
To prevent the disease, it is necessary to follow the rules for watering tomatoes, as well as to correctly use nitrogen-containing fertilizers, without overdoing it with their quantity. When observing the first signs of the disease, the amount of phosphorus and potassium in the soil, on the contrary, must be increased. If a disease occurs, tomatoes can be treated with soda or manganese solution, infusion of garlic or wood ash. For the treatment of tomato disease at the stage of progressive development, you can use the drugs "Topaz", "Fundazol".
All of these diseases can significantly harm tomatoes, destroy them or significantly reduce the yield of vegetables. Tomatoes with strong immunity, obtained as a result of proper plant care, can independently resist diseases. Timely detection of the problem and elimination of it at an early stage of development allows you to maintain the health of the tomato and prevent the destruction of the vegetable harvest.
More information about tomato diseases can be found in the video:
Malicious pests of tomatoes
In addition to all kinds of diseases, insect pests can pose a serious threat to tomatoes. Many gardeners do not even know about their detrimental effect on tomatoes, however, you need to know the enemy "by sight". Indeed, only in this case can a set of measures be taken to save plants and crops.
Pest insects live not only above the ground, but also in its thickness.So, sometimes, for completely incomprehensible reasons, tomatoes begin to die, and it is not possible to save them, since the cause of death is not clear. And the reason for this may be a small worm or an insect that eats the roots of tomatoes.
This pest is known to many under the name May beetle. Quite attractive flying insect can delight and surprise adults and children. However, before the appearance of the beetle, the insect is in the form of a larva, which is quite voracious and, being in the soil, does not mind eating tomato roots. As a result of the destruction of the root system, tomatoes begin to wilt or even die.
In the fight against pest larvae, the tomato can be helped by mechanical removal of the "enemy" when digging the soil. Also, an effective way to combat the pest is to mulch the soil on the near-trunk circle with sawdust, previously impregnated with urea. On the shelves of shops you can also find chemicals that will destroy the larvae of these pests ("Rembek", "Antichrushch").
Important! Often, pest larvae enter the ground along with manure or humus.
You can protect tomatoes from pests by pre-soaking the roots of tomatoes before planting in a solution of the drug "Aktar 25".
Drotyanka or wireworm
The wireworm is the precursor to the click beetle. Larvae in the form of worms are colored orange, have an oblong shape. These tomato pests are capable of devouring tomato roots or even trunks.
In the fight against the pest, you can use the same methods as with the beetle larvae. Among the unconventional methods of mechanical collection and destruction of the pest, one should single out a method involving vegetable cleaning. So, a few days before the expected planting of tomatoes, vegetable peels or peeled vegetables fixed on skewers are laid in the soil. Immediately before planting tomatoes, skewers with vegetable residues and pests collected in them are removed from the soil and destroyed.
This is not at all a small insect, which reaches a length of 10 cm, during its life cycle it can eat a lot of root crops and plant roots. In particular, the insect loves to feast on the roots of tomatoes.
The pest lives in moist soils, near water bodies and at a high level of groundwater. The insect has well-developed, massive forelimbs, which serve as an adaptation for digging holes in the ground. The pest creates nests and lays a large number of eggs. After 3 weeks, they become a whole colony of pests that can eat the roots of all tomatoes in a short period of time.
You can fight the pest in various ways, for example, with the help of strong smells and noise. So, to combat the pest, peeled onion heads or foul-smelling pieces of rotten meat are buried in the ground near the trunk of tomatoes. Noisy turntables are installed over the ridges. The pest can also be lured for subsequent mechanical destruction. Rotted manure or beer can be used as bait. To combat the bear, some chemical agents are also provided, for example, "Medvedoks", "Thunder".
The listed pests of tomatoes, being in the ground, are not visible to the gardener and therefore pose a particular threat to tomatoes. It is often possible to detect the problem only when there are clear signs of tomato death. It is possible to prevent the development of such a problematic situation with the help of preventive measures, by sifting the earth and dressing it before planting tomato seedlings in the ground. When pests are parasitized already on adult plants, the use of only special chemicals can become effective.
Tomato pests on the leaves can be very small, however, they are usually easy to spot with regular inspection of the tomato.
This pest moves in colonies. Aphids are small in size and can be colored black or green. The pest settles on the back of the tomato leaves and sucks out all the juices from it, as a result of which the tomato leaves wither, curl and may fall off. With an invasion of a pest, tomato bushes can die in a short period of time.
In the fight against aphids, insecticides are highly effective. Leaf treatment with this substance should be carried out during the day, in the absence of strong wind and rain. Among the most famous, effective drugs against the pest, we can recommend Proteus and Confidor Maxi.
These small butterflies are often found in greenhouses and greenhouses. Pests lay larvae on the inner surface of the tomato leaf. As a food product, the larvae of the pest consume tomato juice, which leads to the same result as when exposed to aphids.
Important! Under the influence of pests, the immune defense of tomatoes decreases, which can provoke the development of fungal and viral diseases.
To combat the pest, you can use the "Phosbecid" means. It is added in an amount of 10 ml to a bucket of water, and then used to spray tomatoes in the morning and evening.
While moths are in caterpillar form, they can cause significant damage to tomatoes. Pests up to 3 cm long are capable of largely devouring tomato foliage or completely destroying plants. At the same time, caterpillars are able to devour not only greens, but also tomato vegetables themselves.
The pest parasitizes only in a dry, warm enough environment. Often, scoops lay larvae on weeds, the removal of which can be a preventive measure in the fight against the "enemy". You can also fight the pest with the help of the preparations "Proteus", "Arrivo", "Strela". Experienced gardeners also advise using a folk remedy based on the use of a soap solution with the addition of ash and wormwood.
In conditions when there is no rain for a long time, and the weather is particularly hot, another pest is activated - a spider mite. It parasitizes on the inside of the leaf, enveloping it in cobwebs. To maintain its vital functions, the mite sucks the juices from the leaves of the tomato, as a result of which the leaf plates of the tomato become brown and dry.
You can eliminate the pest by spraying tomatoes with infusion of garlic or onion peels. Among the special chemicals for pest control, you can use "Actellic" or "Fitoverm".
The listed pests of tomatoes pose a particular significant threat to the crop. To prevent their parasitism, weeds should be regularly removed from the ridges, loosened and dug up the soil. Pungent odors are usually also a deterrent to pests. This knowledge helps to protect tomatoes from malicious pests. If preventive measures have not brought the desired result, then special chemicals should be used. It is also always worth remembering that tomatoes with strong immunity, with timely watering, feeding and bush formation, are not afraid of many diseases and pests. Therefore, proper tomato care is the most effective preventive measure in the fight against ailments.